Keychain Puzzles

any novelty keychain fobs and charms are available and can be considered collectible - one can find scores of different designs, both modern and some decades old. Among them are a variety of keychain puzzles (or key chain puzzles) - the subject of this section.

Keychain puzzles include interlocking, twisty, sliding piece, dexterity, and other types. Their most important characteristic is being small - according to experts three inches or less in the longest dimension (and even that is pushing it). Even when no chain or cord is included, often there is a hole or a loop where one could be attached.

In this section, I have focused on the interlocking variety of keychain puzzles though I do show some other types I've collected. Most collectors of keychain puzzles will admit certain small interlocking constructions into their collections even when the puzzles were not really intended to be hung on a keychain - I have included some examples here. They are referred to as "Miniature Plastic Interlocking Puzzles" and many were produced in Japan.

In addition, some keychain "puzzles" either are very simple - consisting of only two pieces - or don't interlock but rather press together. Such items are in a controversial gray area on the periphery of proper keychain puzzles. But of course part of the fun of collecting is to define one's own boundaries. I have included a section for "Gray Area and Non-Puzzle Keychains." I don't collect non-puzzle keychains but I sometimes acquire them as part of a grouping. A few of them are worth illustrating either because of their novelty, or because they embody a clever mechanism, or because I have seen them confused with puzzles and can provide clarification.

I have organized the keychains shown in this section into several categories
(you can mouse over and click on the entries in the menu box below):

Below is a showcase of thumbnails of most of the types of keychain puzzles I have found.

  • Guided by Dundas (see below), I have highlighted like this about 70 puzzles that probably belong in any basic collection. The focus is on puzzles issued in the U.S. in the 40's and 50's, many by Lional and Lido.
  • I have highlighted like this another 30 or so puzzles an avid collector should be able to obtain - some from Hong Kong, England, France, or Germany.
  • Many of the rest are from Europe or Japan and may be comparatively rare. What I have experienced to be the rarest, I have highlighted like this.

Small, intricate and colorful plastic keychain puzzles were sold beginning in the 1940's by American manufacturers or brands such as Helenhart Novelty, Plas-Trix, Toy Trix, Pal Plastics, Chemtoy, Harrison, Lional, Lido, and Mechanical Servants. In the UK they appeared under brands such as Peter Pan, Randall or Merit, Roddy, and Bell, and in Germany under the Pussy or Pussycat brand. Several interesting designs were issued in France, Japan, and others in eastern Europe. Some interlocking keychain puzzles - spheres, cubes, elephants, and pigs for example - are still made today in Hong Kong.

The puzzles, aimed at impulse buyers and sold for pocket change, were usually displayed in stores on large cards from which several puzzles - usually of the same type but occasionally a variety - were hung by their chains. Each puzzle would be accompanied by a small solution sheet - taken at sale time from a stack stapled to the display card. Some of the old larger store display cards can still be found - a few examples are shown here.

Sometimes individual puzzles were accompanied by an attractive heavier printed card, or packaged in small bags - either assembled or in pieces - or appeared in boxed sets or blister packs. Most often today they're found loose and without a card or instruction sheet, so it is always nice to be able to acquire an original card or solution sheet along with a vintage keychain puzzle. Shown below are some example cards and solution sheets.

Keychain PuzzleCorner Lock - Japan

Using Google Books search, I have been able to find several notices for wholesale lots of keychain puzzles dating from the late 1940's and early 1950's, in Billboard magazine. An example is shown at left, clipped from the May 28, 1949 issue of Billboard.

A determined collector should be able to find dozens, if not hundreds, of intact examples of vintage plastic interlocking keychain puzzles, and collecting such puzzles has the advantage of requiring a minimum of storage space! While the typical puzzle has only six pieces, and many of the puzzles share an internal architecture derived from one of a few common recurring designs, some of the interlocking designs can be unexpectedly challenging and pleasingly clever.

I am aware of very few published articles concerning keychain puzzles, and until recently the 1998 book Toys That Shoot and Other Neat Stuff by James Dundas was the only real reference showing a large variety of interlocking keychain puzzles (AFAIK). The book has a section on keychain puzzles on pages 70 through 80. Dundas shows about 70 puzzles and suggests rarity and dollar values for them - but the valuations given by Dundas are no longer considered accurate. Collector Steve Butler has written a few articles on keychain puzzles - one article entitled "It's a Puzzle" appeared in the September/October 1991 issue of The Toy Collector magazine. Another two-part article "Key Chain Puzzles" appeared in Antique Toy World in April and May 2004. A third article entitled "Puzzles and Their Place" appeared in the August 2015 issue.

In 2011, Jerry Slocum and William Waite issued their Compendium of Keychain Puzzles, which gives details for 465 puzzles (467 according to the internal numbering but there are unassigned numbers). The Compendium has been updated to a 2nd edition as of August 2015 and now contains 558 puzzles according to the internal numbering. Several from the 2011 1st edition have been reclassified or renamed, or dropped as it was decided they don't really qualify well. Unfortunately the assigned numbers have changed from the 1st to the 2nd edition.

In the U.K. several of what we in the U.S. know as "keychain puzzles" are known as "Jig Toys" and have been issued as cereal box premiums. I like the idea of thinking about these puzzles as miniature "jigsaw toys" - the best designs seem to me, while not exactly having the traditional curvy tabs and notches of a jigsaw, to have pieces that interlock along non-obvious borders. You can read more about Jig Toys at Hugh Walter's Small Scale World blog, in his post entitled "Jig Toys - Puzzle Key Chains." There is also a website called Cereal Offers that aims to document all U.K. cereal promotions over the years. That site has nice pages about Jig Toys free in Corn Flakes in 1959, in Sugar Smacks in 1960, in Frosties in 1960, and in Frosties in 1970. The website has numerous photos including pictures of the boxes, puzzles (many on sprues), and instructions.

Most of the Jig Toys were issued in soft plastic, and the designs which appeared as cereal premiums starting in 1959 - the Jeep, Covered Wagon, Helicopter, Aeroplane (equals Merit's Jet Fighter), Liner, and Transport Lorry, had been issued by J & L Randall Ltd. in their Merit line in hard plastic in 1954, or by Bell (the Liner equals Bell's Steamboat). In 1970, the Lorry, Plane, and Helicopter were replaced by a Tractor (the David Brown design but with a nearly non-existent exhaust stack), a Sedan (the Mechanical Servants design), and a Horse (the Dutch design). The Horse is almost always found without its tiny ears piece. The Liner was replaced by the Destroyer, and though the Covered Wagon remained, it underwent subtle design changes.

Keychain puzzles have inspired art - Steve Armstrong created a series of wooden sculptures - scaled-up renderings of classic keychain puzzles. They were on display at the Aron Packer Gallery in Chicago.

カバヤビッグリーグガムパズル (means Kabaya Big League Gum Puzzle) - Kabaya Foods Corporation is a Tokyo-based confectionery company founded in 1946. Originally manufacturing caramel, in 1963 they began producing gum and chocolate. Over time, Kabaya has issued a wide variety of small plastic toys and puzzles as "extras" or "bonus" items to accompany their candy or gum products. See for example The Transformers Wiki entry on Kabaya.

The company Leaf was founded in the 1940s when it was also a confectionery manufacturer. The Leaf brand name is associated with trading cards - according to the website The Cardboard Connection, Leaf produced one of the most iconic postwar vintage sets, 1948-49 Leaf Baseball, which featured the rookie card of Jackie Robinson. (Note that the current Leaf Trading Cards founded in 2010 has no connection to the gum and card manufacturer of the 1940s.)

Kabaya and Leaf entered into a partnership and in 1967 issued Kabaya-Leaf baseball cards - see the Japanese Baseball Cards blog. At some point they also produced Big League chewing gum.

Starting in the 1960's, Kabaya issued dozens of small interlocking puzzles in both soft or hard plastic to accompany their Big League Chewing Gum. The Kabaya-Leaf company issued over 100 puzzles including 40 puzzle kun (the set of 40 is fairly rare, having been issued only for a short time in the early 1980's) and over 60 in the Big League Chewing gum series.

Glico (sometimes mis-spelled Glyco) is another Japanese confectionery company that issued many small extra or bonus toys with their candy products - but few if any true puzzles.

I began collecting keychain puzzles in 2011, after I acquired a "Wha Hoppen" in March - although as a child I had a small white Bibendum keychain puzzle I received as a souvenir of the New York Auto Show I used to attend with my father.


Here's my collection of keychain puzzles:

The First Keychain Puzzles
These are examples of the Trylon Perisphere puzzle souvenir from the 1939 New York World's Fair, issued by the Helenhart Novelty Company. It is very small, and it is said (see Slocum) that this is the puzzle that gave birth to keychain puzzles (even though it has no chain).

The Trylon Perisphere puzzle is made from a very early form of plastic and often the pieces have warped. One piece in particular seems susceptible to damage - in the group of orange pieces shown above, it is the bottom piece and is broken in two. You should not soak these pieces in water!

I found an intact example of the orange sphere / blue Trylon version, shown below.
In each Trylon Perisphere puzzle, the six letters W-H-A-L-E-N are embossed, one in each of the six pieces.
Grover Whalen was president of the New York World Fair Corporation, and helped run the 1939 fair.

Here is an original instruction sheet that came in the box with the puzzle:

Irving Steinhardt received patent 2178190 in March 1939 for a six-piece interlocking puzzle. The patent depicts a spherical puzzle with an obelisk through it, but notes that the outside shape can vary. The drawings also include a bottle shape. The sphere pieces shown in the patent match the pieces of this puzzle. Steinhardt's design patent D112470 of Dec. 1938 clearly shows the Trylon Perisphere design, and is cited on the puzzle box. Steinhardt also received design patent D118253 in Dec. 1939 for an egg-shaped interlocking puzzle. Steinhardt has many puzzle patents.

The Trylon Perisphere souvenir puzzle appeared in metal as well, in both large and small sizes - although I am not sure that these aren't one-offs since I don't know their provenance, but I have seen one before on a popular auction website.

The Trylon Perisphere souvenir puzzle in metal - larger size.

The Trylon Perisphere souvenir puzzle in metal - smaller size.


This Mystery Ball Puzzle contains virtually the same pieces as the Trylon Perisphere, except the Trylon key piece has been truncated and become part of the ball.
According to Slocum and Waite, this is the first keychain puzzle, issued by the Helenhart Novelty Company of New York City.  

I found an example with its original card - it was evidently sold at F.W. Woolworth.
This puzzle must have been produced in large quantities because many surviving examples can be found, with a variety of attachment types...

The Ball's pieces also have the letters W-H-A-L-E-N inside.

The patent number 2178190 is embossed on the hollow inside of the key piece.

Steinhardt also patented the horseshoe-shaped clip, in 1942 (D132116), and another type of retention device having a cord, in 1944 (2361069).


I found this clear or translucent example of the Mystery Ball. The pieces contain the WHALEN letters and the patent number.

Other Steinhardt Architecture Puzzles
Here is a version of the Steinhardt Ball from "Peter Pan" made in England, with its card:

Here is a version of the Steinhardt Ball from Germany, with its card:

NOTE the clever two-piece construction of the key piece - this allows it to be removed from the puzzle without having to detach the chain.
The horseshoe clip proffers the traditional English "Good Luck."
Also note these pieces have no WHALEN lettering, nor any patent number on them, but the ball is the same size as the Helenhart product.
The pieces are very precisely made and fit is excellent.

This version of the Steinhardt Ball came from Russia, with instruction sheet, from a seller in Voronezh, Russian Federation:

The Steinhardt configuration in ball form is still made today in China.

Here is a set of eight colorful keychain puzzles, obtained in 2018 from China.
All use the Steinhardt architecture.

A large version of the Steinhardt ball - hard plastic

A large (45mm) version of the Steinhardt Ball, with hollowed pieces - Hong Kong

A farily large version of the Steinhardt configuration in ball form has been used in France to advertise Air France and Pampryl.
Pampryl is an orange drink.
I believe both the Air France and the Pampryl versions were made from the same molds,
as in both cases the surface of the sphere has embossed "continent" outlines on it.

I have two Air France keychain ball puzzles, and they are of different sizes.
Also received a copy of an insert that seems to have accompanied the Air France puzzle. Note that what the insert says is incorrect! The "game" was not invented by the Japanese - as we know, this puzzle topology was invented by Steinhardt! And of course there are six pieces, not five.
The Air France Ball in light blue is listed as #469 "Sphere 04" on p79 of the Compendium 2nd Ed. but the Compendium does not distinguish between the two sizes.

Air France keychain puzzle Ball - dark blue version
I don't have this. Shown for reference.
This mold and dark blue color may also have been used for the "Perfocarta Ferry" ball puzzle shown as #279 on p47 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

This large version of the Steinhardt Ball was issued as advertising for Bennes Marrel.

The Steinhardt configuration in ball form appeared as the Sputnik.
According to my source, this was issued by Sumugam of India in 1988.

Here is a comparison of Steinhardt Ball puzzle sizes.
From front to back, left to right, balls and sizes are:
Bowling Ball - 20mm, Steinhardt Ball - 22mm, soft KL ball - 23mm, hard Japan ball - 24mm, hard HK ball - 31mm,
hard colored ball - 35mm, Bennes Marrel - 37mm, Pampryl - 37mm,
small Air France - 37mm, large Air France - 42mm

The Steinhardt configuration in cube form has appeared in the past in small and larger sizes, and is still made today in Hong Kong.
Here are ten examples in different sizes - one vintage medium-sized version is shown disassembled in the big photo.
The left two in the big photo are modern Hong Kong versions - one with loop and one without - and the HK pieces are shown in the next photo.
In the next photo, of two cubes, the larger cube is the same size as the HK cubes but it is stamped China. Its pieces are thin-walled cheap plastic.
The last two photos show a bagged cube, issued by the Czech company Druopta in 1983.

This 45mm Steinhardt Cube came from Hungary.
It fits together very nicely - I like it a lot.
It's not a keychain puzzle, but you can see that the Steinhardt architecture has been widely copied.

Here is a proper keychain-sized example of the blocky Czech Steinhardt cube puzzle.

Kabaya Leaf of Japan issued a Steinhardt Ball and a Cube in soft plastic

Kabaya Leaf of Japan also issued a hard plastic Steinhardt Cube.

A group of Steinhardt architecture puzzles in soft plastic from Kabaya Leaf Japan.
Only two are not Steinhardt - can you tell which?

Mechanical Servants issued a small Steinhardt Cube

Tamaki of Japan issued this boxed Die Cube using the Steinhardt Architecture

Tamaki of Japan also issued this boxed pastel/crystal Cube using the Steinhardt Architecture - they call it "Puzzle Square"
Three examples.

The Steinhardt configuration in Drop or Droplet form has been issued in hard plastic, from HK and Japan, and possibly elsewhere.
Here are several examples - note the differing chain attachments.

Kawada of Japan issued this boxed Droplet puzzle using the Steinhardt Architecture

This soft plastic version of the Droplet is from Kabaya-Leaf of Japan.

Here is a comparison of a hard plastic drop (on the left) with a soft plastic drop.
The hard plastic drop is slightly larger at 30mm x 20mm versus 28mm x 17mm for the soft.

Here is the Kun version of the drop. It is much larger than either the hard or soft version of the regular drop puzzle.

A set of four card suits from Kabaya Leaf of Japan - Club, Spade, Heart, Diamond. Soft Plastic.
All are sculpted instances of the Steinhardt configuration.

I found additional examples of the Card Suit puzzles:

Another interesting variation on the Steinhardt Cube construction, from Kabaya of Japan, in soft plastic - this is a Cube on a Diagonal:

A Crystal-shaped puzzle from Kabaya of Japan. Hard plastic.
With original box.
#548 "Octahedron" in Compendium 2nd Ed.

Diamonds are forever!

A faceted sphere on its original card.
Steinhardt configuration.

Other Keychain Puzzle Geometric Objects

Keychain Sphere - 7 pieces
Four examples - two blue and white from German company Pussycat,
7-color version obtained from France.
Also green translucent version (pieces shown).
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat

An example of the same sphere architecture, with Baseball stitching - Japan.
Hard plastic.
I found a Japanese store card of this puzzle, issued by the company "Junior":

A soft plastic sphere - Kabaya leaf Japan

5 piece Ball - Japan

Alternative architecture 5 piece ball - Japan

Yet another alternative architecture 5 piece ball - Japan
I don't have this. Shown for reference, pix supplied by William Waite.

Sphere - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Several pieces resemble crossbows to me - so I call this the "Crossbow Sphere."
Not in the Compendium 2nd Ed. so far as I can tell.

Puzzle Kun Kumiki Ball - Kabaya Leaf Japan
I also obtained the Kun Kumiki Ball on its original sprues, with unopened instructions:

Here is the inverse, though my example seems to be missing its loop:
Keychain KL Kun sphere (inverse) - Japan

Keychain Kumiki Ball

Keychain Kumiki Cube

I know this as the "Frankfort Cube" - eight examples, the first two in hard plastic and the green, blue, yellow instance in soft plastic.
It has been used for advertising in France.
This design has a kind of "hinged" clip that swings out.
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat.

Allsides Cube keychain puzzle - designed by William Waite
Mine is #16, from a limited edition of 26 puzzles. Includes a signed card reminiscent of the way keychain puzzles were sold in the 50s.
Each of the four pieces touches all sides of the cube, hence the name. Four moves to remove the first piece. "One of the most difficult keychain puzzles ever produced."

Keychain Barrel or Cylinder included in Japanese candy - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan

I found several - perhaps this puzzle was produced and/or purchased and saved in large numbers (but it still is not overly easy to obtain outside Japan):

Kabaya Leaf Kun series "Cylinder 2" #539 on p. 90 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
I also obtained the Kun Cylinder, as well as the Kun Pagoda Burr, on their original sprues, with unopened instructions:

Keychain Cross included in Japanese candy - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Was available in different color combinations:

I also found one (from Japan) in yellow and white:

This is the Kun version of the Cross Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Capsule - Kabaya Leaf Japan

This is the "Kun" version of the Capsule puzzle issued by Kabaya Leaf Japan

Kun Hemisphere - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Kun Molecule Lattice - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #521 "Burr 18" on p87 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
To me though, this isn't really a burr, so I include it here with "geometric objects."
It is also pin-in-hole press-fit, but it was issued among Kabaya's 40 Kun puzzles, with the ten in the blue box.

Kun Rattle Box / Cube Rattle - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #491 "Cube 11" on p82 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
It is also pin-in-hole press-fit, but it was issued among Kabaya's 40 Kun puzzles, with the ten in the red box. From the red box list,
ボックス means box.
くみたてかた means "how to make."

Kun "Chiclets" - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #549 "Platform" on p92 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
It is also pin-in-hole press-fit, but it was issued among Kabaya's 40 Kun puzzles, with the ten in the red box.
From the red box list, means board or plank, and
ブロック means "block"

Puzzle Kun "Cylinder 1" - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #538 "Cylinder 1" on p90 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued among the 10 color Kun in the red boxes. From the red box list,
円筒 means cylinder.
I have opened the red example's bag but have not cut the pieces free of the sprues, nor cut open the solution sheet.
I also found an assembled yellow example - I removed one side slab and you can see the supplied rattle ball inside.
The puzzle has six side slab pieces and two end disks. Each disk is surrounded by a series of large or small pins; each side has a pair of holes, large or small, at each end. One must match holes and pins to build the cylinder. This puzzle employs the same principle as the Wheel and Tire puzzle.

Puzzle Kun "Lifesavers" Stack (Cylinder 3) - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #540 "Cylinder 3" on p90 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued among the 10 color Kun in the red boxes. From the red box list,
ドーナツタワー means "donut tower"

Puzzle Kun "Cube 13" - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Its pieces remind me of a Pinned Cube such as Stewart Coffin's Corner Block, and externally of a Soma Cube.
Appears as #493 "Cube 13" on p83 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued among the 10 color Kun in the red boxes. From the red box list,
means "sumi" - a corner or angle, and
コロ means "koro" - a log or roller.
I have opened its bag but have not cut the pieces free of the sprues, nor cut open the solution sheet.

Puzzle Kun "Tangrams" - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Its pieces remind me of a Tangram set.
This is not an interlocking puzzle so it does not appear in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
but I include it here since it was issued among the 10 color Kun in the red boxes. From the red box list,
組み means "kumi" - set or assembly [of], and
組み板 means "Kumi-ban" or "braided board" -
searching for that results in tangrams and jigsaws.
I have opened its bag but have not cut the pieces free of the sprues, nor cut open the solution sheet.

Puzzle Kun "Hot Pad" - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #189 "Hot Pad" on p32 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued among the 10 color Kun in the red boxes. From the red box list,
コースター means "coaster"
I have opened its bag but have not cut the pieces free of the sprues.
I did however cut open the solution sheet, so I could dis- and re- assemble this blue example I found:

There are six identical pieces marked "1" and two pieces marked "2" - the instructions indicate that a "2" goes in last, and that by offsetting pieces, "1" pieces can slide out of the way. I found this to be a difficult feat of dexterity and patience!

Checkerboard Brick (or Pylon) - Kabaya Leaf Japan

It was not obvious to me at first, but this puzzle has been issued in multiple color schemes -
I have examples with a white cross, an orange cross, a blue cross, and a yellow cross at both ends.
Perhaps other combinations were officially issued.
You can see both orange and white complete piece sets below.

Of course, once one has various piece sets, one can create different color combinations. However, those I show here I obtained as shown - I have not gotten creative on my own.

I also found one in yellow and white:

Here is the pair of white and yellow KL puzzles I found:

Checkerboard Brick, Kun version - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Each keychain puzzle typically contains six pieces. Here is a photo of a bunch of pieces mixed together. Can you figure out which pieces go with which puzzle?

Keychain Numerals 0-9 - Japan

Set of three Letter puzzles ABC - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Details below...

Letter 'A' - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf of Japan

Letter 'B' - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf of Japan

Letter 'C' - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf of Japan

Four Piece Cube - designed by Dic Sonneveld,
made by Lee Krasnow from various metals. It's tiny!

From Lee Krasnow at Pacific Puzzle Works, a machined stainless frame for Lee's
Sonneveld Four Piece Cube, making it a keychain puzzle!

Metal Jigsaw Ball - advertising for AT&T
This has a magnetized hollow spherical core. The loop unscrews and has a magnetic tip that can be used to pull pieces off the sphere (a piece is stuck to it in the photo).
I know, I know - it's a jigsaw - but it's still interlocking, right?

Keychain Burrs

Several small geometric puzzles were issued by Pussy of Germany.
I have seen these counted in some keychain puzzle collections.
The Satellite, Tangle, Tripleknot, Cage Cube, Pussy Sticks, and Trick Star are shown separately.

Kreuzknoten by Pussy of Germany

The small Pussycat boxed puzzles have been produced by others as well - here is a set from China.

Puzzle Kun 18-piece Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan
(May be #519 "Burr 16" on p87 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.)
Issued among the 10 Kun in the red boxes. From the red box list,
組み means "kumi" - set or assembly [of], and
組み柱 means pillars.
Also shown: a green example still on sprues in its original package.

A trio of translucent puzzles from Japan - Barrel, Truncated Cube, and Diagonal Star.

Diagonal Star - Kabaya Japan

Here is a group of miniature plastic interlocking puzzles from Kabaya Leaf of Japan:

Diagonal Star, Kun version - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Diagonal Star Burr - China

Diagonal Star Burr variant - issued by Vladimir Krasnoukhov at IPP21

Pointy Diagonal Star Burr variant

Keychain Burr - Brown & White - a version was made by Nanavati Plastics of India 2003, but see below - this design was also made in Germany.
There are no markings on the puzzle.
Keychain Devil's Knot - Franco Keychain Devil's Knot - Franco
Keychain Devil's Knot - Franco

Keychain Burr - France
Two examples shown, but I traded away the second.

Keychain Burr - Teufelsknoten Schlüsselanhänger
(Two shown but I traded one away.)
One in original package - Thanks, Bernhard!

Chinesischer Knoten - Germany
This small burr puzzle comes in a heavy vinyl bag that is almost of higher quality than the puzzle itself!
The pieces are the Chinese Cross set { 1, 256, 824/975, 928, 1024 }.
Schwerin-Sacktannen is in the north of Germany, east of Hamburg.

Six-piece burr keychain puzzle - most likely from Adams.

Adams' Locked Blocks

Kun Cage Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Adams' Block Puzzle Senior aka Adams' Panel Puzzle - their implementation of the 12 piece Altekruse design.
Here are some disassembly steps:

Six piece burr - Druopta Czech.
This burr uses pieces { 120, 160, 256, 512, 880, 960 } and is an exmple of a design by Philippe Dubois / Gaby Games.
I also have a black example I picked up in Prague during IPP28.

Puzzle Kun Circle Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #501 "Burr Circle 3" on p84 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued among the 10 color Kun puzzles in the red boxes. From the red box list,
地球儀 means globe.
Two examples - white, and a green one still on sprues in its original package.

Circle Burr - China

Starburst Burr - China

Keychain Diagonal Burr - Pussy Sixbricks

Keychain 14-piece Altekruse Burr

Diagonal Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Puzzle Kun Diagonal Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Six Piece Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan
This is the "Yamato Block" piece set { 1, 188, 824/975, 1024 x 2 }
If you examine the pieces, you'll see they are numbered 1 to 6:

KL # 1 2 3 4 5 6
ID # 188 1024 975 824 1024 1

The fit on mine was very tight. You have to find the key piece 1, KL#6, and carefully slide it out.

Puzzle Kun Six Piece Burr - Kabaya Leaf Japan
The same Yamato Block piece set as the non-Kun KL puzzle above.

Traditional six-piece burr as a keychain - three examples.
The "Chinese Cross" piece set.
A recent production, made in Hong Kong.

Another "Chinese Cross" piece set burr without a loop.

Czech Caged Burr

The "Chinese Cross" 6 piece burr on a keychain - from Taiwan

Keychain OCC Burr

Keychain 6 piece Burr

This 6-piece burr from Japan uses the unusual piece set { 1, 188, 512, 576, 976, 1024 }

A 3-piece wooden keychain burr.

Keychain Magic Circle - Bell 1954

Metal Sphere Burr keychain puzzle
Purchased in auction from an Asian vendor.
Inexpensive, but interesting - notice that the pieces have traditional six-piece burr notching.
The 1024 piece to which the chain is attached has a rounded edge.

Pontiac Indian Head automotive advertising keychain puzzle.
Really happy to have acquired this unusual puzzle!
"Canada" is embossed on the hair piece.
Similar to the Bell Magic Circle above. The blue wedge rotates to allow the green and red wedges to be removed. The white and red pieces shown near the metal pieces are thinner than usual to allow the metal pieces to fit alongside.

Circle Burr, soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Listed in Compendium 2nd Ed. as Burr - Circle 4 No. 502 on page 84.

Pentagonal Burr - hard plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Puzzle Kun 6-bar Mine - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #522 "Burr 19" on p87 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued by KL as one of the ten puzzles in the blue boxes.

Puzzle Kun Weave - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #520 "Burr 17" on p87 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued by KL as one of the ten puzzles in the checkered boxes.

Slab Burr - hard plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Slab Burr, Kun version - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #507 "Burr 4" on p85 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Issued by KL as one of the ten puzzles in the checkered boxes.

Maltese Cross keychain puzzle by Bell (rwb has replica card, 2nd example has original card) 1954
The Chinese Cross pieces

Q-Burr - originally designed by Jim Gooch
Keychain puzzle by George Bell

Stellated Orchid by George Bell

Burr in Ball from Japan - Kabaya Leaf Inc.
This is the "Puzzle Kun" version.

Burr in Ball - multicolored version - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Two examples, but I sold the black & red bodied one.

Comparison of the Kabaya Leaf Burr-in-Ball Kun and regular versions.
The black and white Kun version is larger.

A small Pagoda Burr puzzle - hard(ish) plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan

A side-4 Pagoda Burr puzzle - from the Kun series - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #517 "Burr 14" on p87 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

A six-piece 3D Cross Burr puzzle - from the Kun series - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Appears as #512 "Burr 9" on p86 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Among the 10 Kun in red boxes. From the red box list,
放射状 means radial.

Keychain Animals and Riders

Keychain Dogs and Cats
These form a substantial subgroup, with the Compendium 2nd Ed. listing ten types of dog on pages 3 through 5, though there is only a single cat architecture. I have found some dog sub-type variants the Compendium does not distinguish, and also a few types not listed. This table gives a quick overview of the different types. Details on each follow in the main part of this subsection.
[Back to Animals Menu]

1. #13/14 - Large Scottie, pointy ears, hollow legs (rounded) - Peter Pan
Keychain dog - letter internals
(Common) Non Peter Pan Large Scottie, pointy ears, hollow legs (rounded) w/ letters VPATOI
Keychain dog - blocky internals Keychain dog - blocky internals
DDR version Large Scottie, pointy ears, hollow legs (blocky) no letters
Keychain Druopta dog Keychain Druopta dog
Druopta uni-ear, solid legs

2. #15 Small Scottie, flat ears, rounded tail

3. #16 Spunky - symmetric ears

Spunky with asymmetric ears

Large Spunky from Hong Kong marked "WY No 50"

"Holey" Spunky

4. #18 Russian Dog

5. #19 Puzzle Pup Jr.

6. #21 Modern Spunky, ears forward

Modern Spunky, ears back

Modern Spunky, mixed ears forward & back

7. #22 Waldi

8. #23 Roddy

9. #25 Kabaya Dachshund

10. #26 Czech inverted head

Mack Bulldog 2 piece.
Listed as "Bulldog" in the 1st Ed.

Polish Poodle
Same architecture as Dutch Horse

Dog head on Dutch Horse body (DON'T HAVE)

"Cat 1" #7/8 p2 - "Puzzle Puss"

Lucky Cat - Bell UK - same arch. as Puzzle Puss
In Compendium Appendix #51
Note that there is no Cat 2 listed in the 2nd Ed. but in the 1st Ed. Lucky Cat was Cat 2.

Bulldog head on Cat body (DON'T HAVE)


The Compendium numbers the Peter Pan Large Scottie as "Dog 01" but I feel this honor belongs to Steinhardt's Spunky.

This interlocking keychain puzzle is Spunky the Dog.
A U.S. patent was granted to Irving Hartley Steinhardt in 1953 (2651522) - though the patent was filed in 1947.
In the Feb. 28 1948 issue of Billboard magazine, Kim & Cioffi of Philadelphia were selling a gross of Spunky the Pup Keychains for $13.50. The same outfit is selling a "Keychain Puzzle Pup" in the Apr. 10 1948 issue. The Border Novelty Co. is selling a "Dog Puzzle Spunky Key Chain" for $1.25 in the Oct. 2 1948 issue.
According to Jerry Slocum, Spunky was Steinhardt's pet dog.

The six letters in S-P-U-N-K-Y are embossed, one in each of the six pieces - see below.

I found a European (Spanish) patent on this design: ES17805U Antonio Pozo Vicente 1948.

Keychain Dog patent ES17805U - Antonio Pozo Vicente 1948


Spunky usually appears having symmetric-width left and right ears, however there is an asymmetric version where one ear is wider than the other.

Note that the two examples on the left have asymmetric ear widths.

I found an unusual version of the Spunky Dog - marked Made in Hong Kong in a circle on its head, and "WY No. 50" on its left rear flank. In size it is slightly larger than a normal Spunky but seems less accurately made. Comparison photos shown, original Spunky on right.


I also found another unusual version of the Spunky Dog - this one has holes hollowing out areas of its pieces - I call it "Holey Spunky." It is slightly smaller than the normal Spunky, and unlike the usual Spunky which has its chain attached at its neck, Holey Spunky has a hole in its tail for the chain attachment.
Holey Spunky came from a seller in Bulgaria.

Here is Holey Spunky (black/yellow head) in comparison with a normal Spunky (blue/orange head):

and also with the large "50" Spunky:


This type of Keychain Dog is commonly known as Scottie but I found an original instruction sheet clearly showing these pieces (pointy ears and distinct tail) which calls it Plasty the Puzzle Pup. This type is larger than Spunky. Five examples shown - this model is fairly common.
"Plasty the Puzzle Pup" is offered in the January 1947 issues of Popular Science and Popular Mechanics, and in the February 1948 issue of The Billboard but unfortunately none of those issues have an image of the puzzle.

NOTE the shape of the ears, and the tail piece - these instructions match this type of dog.

I found the letters V-P-A-T-O-I molded inside three pieces of a version of this dog (the other three pieces show no letters) -
I have no idea what they mean - see below:

The large dog puzzle was also offered by Peter Pan in England - here is a Peter Pan Dog on its original card.
The pieces are glossier than the previous version, and in six different colors.
Appears in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #13/14 "Dog 1" on p3.
The C2E indicates that the Peter Pan Dog was offered in the 1948 Johnson Smith Catalog on p179, and in the 1949 Gordon's Catalog, but I cannot verify whether it was indeed the Peter Pan carded version or merely the Plasty version, though I suspect the latter.

Keychain dog - DDR Keychain dog - DDR Keychain dog - DDR Keychain dog - DDR Keychain dog - DDR Keychain dog - DDR

Keychain dog - DDR Keychain dog - DDR
Keychain Dog - DDR - two examples, both obtained in different lots from Germany
Note the shapes of the insides of the pieces - they are blockily hollowed out and contain no lettering.

I found a couple of European patents on this dog design. See DE1631833U Fritz Hasselbeck 1951.
It shows the characteristic pieces of this dog type, including the tail and pointed ears - but the ears in the diagram meet in a V.
An earlier patent ES15924U Benito Manso Alonso 1947, shows the same tail but separated ears.
Note that there seem to be hundreds of patents of diverse types (see e.g. which lists 428 from 1944 to 1969) where the assignee is "Manso Alonso, Benito" -
I don't know who this is (or whether it was some sort of corporate entity).
Among Plasty, Peter Pan, Alonso, and Hasselbeck, who has priority for this dog design is anybody's guess.

Keychain dog - Hasselbeck patent DE1631833U 1951 Keychain dog - Alonso patent ES15924U 1947

There are several versions of this type of dog with subtle differences in appearance - here are some examples...

Keychain dog examples

In general, I have found that the keychain dog puzzles of this outward appearance fall
into two basic classes (with some subtle subclasses) based on the internal shapes of their pieces
and whether they contain lettering - this blocky hollowed type, versus the type where
the hollowed areas are more rounded and contain lettering.
Examples shown below.

Blocky, no lettering:
Keychain dog - blocky internals Keychain dog - blocky internals Keychain dog - blocky internals
with a couple of sub-sub-variants - see how the blocky "plateaus" in the legs of the examples on the left remain at the level of the piece's edge, while those in the legs in the second photo drop down?

Rounded, with lettering:
Keychain dog - letter internals Keychain dog - letter internals Keychain dog - letter internals Keychain dog - letter internals

Of course, the Druopta Czech dog isn't hollowed out (see below)...
Keychain Druopta dog

At IPP37 I found this unusual version of a dog keychain puzzle, from Druopta.
Note the "uni-ear" and the wide nose.

Keychain Druopta dog Keychain Druopta dog Keychain Druopta dog Keychain Druopta dog Keychain Druopta dog Keychain Druopta dog
Keychain Druopta Dog

Puzzle Pup Junior keychain puzzle - four examples
Plas-Trix 1949

This type of dog puzzle was offered in the 1951 Johnson Smith Catalog (available at on page 122 (page 60 of the PDF):

1951 Johnson Smith Catalog


This version of the Scottie Dog is smaller and has a head like Spunky's and a tail like Pup Jr's. Three examples, but I sold the orange-headed one.

The card shown above identifies this as Plasty the Puzzle Pup, by Toy-Trix.
The instructions on this card show the distinctive tail piece and more squared-off ears of this dog type,
but the larger dog shown above has also been called Plasty.
So, evidently, the name Plasty has been applied to more than one dog type.

The Pal Plastics Scottie Dog card below also shows the pieces of this dog type - note the tail in particular.
However, this card was accompanied by the larger version of the Scottie dog.
Go figure!


Here is a comparison of Spunky and the large and small Scotties.
The large Scottie is on the left, Spunky is in the middle, and the small Scottie is on the right. Each has six pieces.

A small dog issued by Roddy of the UK - similar to the small Scottie Dog above. Three examples including a second but damaged pink/blue one with box.

Here is a five dog comparison:

This Czech version of the Scotty Dog has an "inverted" two-piece head.
The two pieces of the head fit together and into the body only one way.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Dog 10" #26 on page 5.
I found two examples but sold the green one.
I later found this red version which came to me from Russia:

Keychain Russian Dog - two examples

A Dachshund dog interlocking keychain puzzle (soft plastic) - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Four examples but I sold the white-headed and green-headed ones.

Keychain Mack Bulldog
Minimally interlocking (only two pieces) and minimally a puzzle - but nicely sculpted.

Waldi the dachshund, the first official Olympic mascot.
Created for the 1972 winter games in Munich.
Instructions shown but my example is different -
it has a plastic spine and press-fit tail and ears.
Unfortunately someone glued the head, chest, and first segment together.
Since my first was slightly damaged, I found a couple more.

Spunky Dog - large modern version
A modern copy of Steinhardt's 1953 design (patent 2651522) - issued with different heads, including dog, llama (giraffe?), and elephant. These are larger than the vintage Spunky dog of the patent, and the pieces are hollowed out.

Whoever produced the "Modern" Spunky used the same basic architecture to also produce a "Llama/Giraffe" and an Elephant by varying only the head shapes.

Modern Spunky - ears forward

Modern Spunky - ears back

Modern Spunky - Llama/Giraffe

Modern Spunky - Elephant

Compare this to the large modern Spunky Dog above -
here, the ears are swept back. Also, there is no protruding nose.
Is this supposed to be something other than a dog? Maybe a Goat?

I ran across a photo online taken at an exhibition of the puzzle collection of Josef Horda at the Vida Science Center in Brno in the Czech Republic. One display case contained keychain puzzles, and in particular a dog that seemed to have a combination of the ears-forward and ears-backward head pieces. I captured the photos and show excerpts below.

Here are the interiors of examples from my collection of the head pieces of both dog types - ears-forward on top and ears-backward below.

Note that the ears-forward head pieces have a nose and a tab on one half, that sits in a corresponding slot on the other head half. The ears-backward head pieces have no nose, but have a peg on one half that fits into a socket in the other half. (I have three examples each of the ears-forward and the ears-backward dogs, and their configurations are as shown - I do not know of any instance where the slot and nose, or peg and socket sides are reversed.) Neither pair of mixed pieces fits together perfectly, but the slot half will fit with the socket half - resulting in a head with the backwards ear on the left of the face and the forwards ear on the right. I built this dog, shown below. Note that the other pair of head pieces (nose half and peg half) do not fit together - but in the Horda photo, that is the ears combination shown - forward on left and backwards on right!

I am not sure whether the Horda version is yet a third type, or is a Frankenstein whose poor fit is obscured in the available photo. Please let me know if you have any information about this - photos of the insides of the mixed head pieces would be even better!

Who let the dogs out??

Here is a Poodle, obtained from a seller in Poland, which shares the architecture of the Dutch/German Horse puzzle.
The poodle is made from hard plastic.
The head piece slides out first.
This puzzle poodle does not appear in the Compendium 2nd Ed. and seems very rare.

Speaking of rare or unusual puzzles featuring the Dutch Horse body architecture,
here are photos I snagged from the web of another variant, having a dog head, with no mane.
Shown for reference (I do not have this):

It seems to have been assembled with the "belt" piece in an incorrect orientation.

Puzzle Puss - three examples. Also showing two slightly different cards (can you spot the difference?) and a tear-off paper instruction sheet complete with tear!
Also issued by Bell and called the "Lucky Cat."

Lucky Cat - Bell UK
Comparison of faces of Lucky Cat (center) and Puzzle Puss (left and right):

Frankly, I see no differences.
The Lucky Cat fits together much more tightly than any Puzzle Puss I've run across, though. Ahem.

Here is a Bulldog using the Lucky Cat architecture.
This one is absent from the Compendium 2nd Ed. and seems rare.
Shown for reference (I do not have this):

Thanks to Karen for the photos!

Besides Dogs, Keychain Elephants have also proven to be a popular type - the Compendium 2nd Ed. lists nine subtypes on pages 6 through 8 and I have identified a few more.
[Back to Animals Menu]

1. #35/36 - Bell UK 1949

Plas-Trix' "Jumbo Elephant Zipper Pull" (listed in 1948 Billboard so predates Bell)
The Compendium lists 2. #37 - numbered pieces Denmark I DON'T HAVE.

3. #38 - Pussy Germany #2200 1981

Chinese copy of Pussy 2200

BASF version w/ hollow legs

4. #39 - "Split Head" soft plastic

5. #40 - Mechanical Servants w/ "limp" tail

7. #42 - Mechanical Servants w/ circular tail

6. #41 - Kabaya Leaf Elephant

#78 p13 - Clown & Elephant - this is "Jumbo" by Lional.
The Compendium incorrectly associates the Plas-Trix Jumbo card with this.

8. #43 - Modern Spunky-bodied Elephant

9. #44 - DDR/German Elephant

Toby - France

Samson Novelty Elephant
C2E Appendix #13

Jumbo the Elephant - two examples
The head is a single piece - note the tab at the top of the back of the neck.

In the Nov. 6 1948 issue of Billboard magazine, the Harris Novelty Company of Philadelphia was selling a gross of each of "Key Chain Puzzles, Elephant" and "Key Chain Puzzles, Donkey" for $13.50 each.

Comparison of four elephants
Compare Jumbo shown previously with the similar-looking examples below - each has six pieces. Simplified (Pussy) example in upper left. Soft plastic "split head" example in upper right. Vintage "simplified" example in lower left. Jumbo in lower right.
UL: note hollow head w/ no tab, chain eyelet, lack of pin on right-rear leg (RRL) piece.
UR: note split head, end point sockets for chain, pin on RRL piece.
LL: note hollow head w/ no tab, end point sockets for chain, pin on RRL piece.
LR: note solid head w/ tab, chain channel, pin on RRL piece.

"Simplified" Jumbo the Elephant - 4 examples
The two blue and yellow examples are from the German company Pussy.
Note the absence of the tab at the top of the back of the neck -
also there is no pin on the right rear leg.
The white-headed example is from China - note its instructions are identical to the Pussy German version.

Elephant keychain puzzle advertising BASF
Note the hollowed out legs

"Split Head" Elephant - soft plastic
Pieces are similar to but different from Jumbo.

Keychain Bell Elephant
This nice version by Bell, with its original card, has examples of Bell's characteristic "flesh tone" (caucasian) and light green colored pieces.

Four examples of the "Mechanical Servants" style Elephant
Pair of MS versions on the left, HK copy on the right. Both types made in HK but the MS versions are higher quality. Note the difference in the tail, and the neck insert length.
MS instructions on the left, HK on right. Note that HK instructions do not reflect accurate tail.

Elephant - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Steinhardt architecture variant.
I found two but sold one, then I found another pair.

Three examples of an Elephant with Clown rider keychain
The card I found calls this "Jumbo" from Lional

The "Dog Body" style (large) Elephant - two examples

Three examples of a German Elephant keychain.
I sold the green one with the red belt.

This charming keychain elephant called "Toby" arrived from France complete with its colorful box.
Its architecture is similar to the large Scottie Dog puzzle, but there are no letters inside the pieces.
This puzzle is absent from the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Samson Novelty Elephant Puzzle - England
The Samson Novelty Elephant and box appears in the Compendium Appendix "Packaging of Keychain Puzzles" as #13.

The Compendium 2nd Ed. lists five Keychain Pigs, as well as a Boar from DDR/Germany.
[Back to Animals Menu]

1. #66 - circular tail, large hole in loop

var. of (1) w/ limp tail

2. #67 - rounded ears, tiny hole in loop

3. #68 - rectangular ears

4. #69 - Czech Pig, pointy ears

5. #70 - curly tail, indented circle around eye, bent legs - DDR/Germany

Pig - Mexico

#77 p13 - Wild Boar - DDR

Pig keychain puzzle, with round tail.
The first pink and black version is higher quality (from Pussycat of Germany?)
This design is similar to the MS Elephant construction.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. "Pig 1" No. 66 on p11.

This version of the pig has a straight, flat tail as opposed to the round-tail version, but its architecture is the same.

This version of the pig has rounded ears.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. "Pig 2" No. 67 on p12.
Thanks, William!

This version of the pig has rectangular ears drooping down.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. "Pig 3" No. 68 on p12.
The seller was in Germany.

This version of the Pig comes from the Czech Republic.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. "Pig 4" No. 69 on p12.
My copy has some surface damage.

This version of the Pig comes from the DDR - three examples
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. "Pig 5" No. 70 on p12.

This version of the keychain Pig puzzle was produced in Mexico.
It has the same architecture as Pig 3 #68.
Mexican keychain puzzles often have the characteristic large plastic keychain attachment shown here.
(I show the postmark from the package shipped to me, from a seller in Ixtapaluca, Mexico.)

Keychain interlocking puzzle Wild Boar or Hedgehog (Germany) - four examples

Another eye test - Keychain Puzzle Pieces Jumble #2 - can you tell which pieces comprise which puzzle?

Keychain Beasts of Burden - including Burros, Donkeys, Camels, Horses (some being ridden by Cowboys & Indians) - form another subgroup.
[Back to Animals Menu]

#92/93 p16 - Rider & Mule 1 - Mule Train - Lional

#28 p5 - Donkey 1 - Plas-Trix

#29 p5 - Donkey 2 - DDR/Germany

#90 p15 - Rider & Camel - Desert Patrol - Lional

#82 p14 - Cowboy w/ pistol in right hand

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - Cowboy w/ pistol in left hand

#83 p14 - Cowboy w/ rifle in left hand

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - Indian w/ tomahawk in right hand
NOTE - Indian w/ tomahawk in the LEFT hand is #84 on p14. It says that version is soft plastic and from Hong Kong. This version is the MUCH more common Lional hard plastic type included in the Indian Raid set, so I am surprised it isn't listed.

#91 p16 - Mini Indian on horseback

#87/88 p15 - Ranger / Scout / Mounted Police

#80/81 - Ride 'Em Cowboy

#94/95 - "Rider & Mule 2" - UK

#85/86 - Kentucky Derby

#54 p9 - Dutch Horse

#57 p10 - Llama

Mule Train or "Burro and Rider" or "Mule Rider"
A version was issued by Lional 1954
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #92/93 on p16.
17 examples
(The Sombrero isn't a puzzle but is sometimes seen accompanying the Mule Rider.)

Interestingly, there is a design patent on this puzzle - D161829 Goodman - issued 1951, filed 1949.

"Don" Key (Donkey) keychain puzzle - three examples.
See the instructions - this one has only five pieces but requires various rotations.
Plas-Trix 1949

Donkey (German) keychain puzzle - Four examples

Desert Patrol / Camel Rider keychain puzzle - 3 examples
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #89/90 on p15.
Unusual in that it has only five pieces.

Lional Indian Raid set
Includes two Indians on horseback, each holding a tomahawk in the right hand
and two cowboys on horseback, each holding a pistol in the right hand.
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #19 in the Appendix - Multiples-2 section.

Cowboy with pistol in right hand -
one additional (loose) example
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #82 on p14.

Cowboy with pistol in left hand - 2 examples
Not listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Maybe these are riflemen with the rifle butt broken off, but I found examples from different sources and they don't seem damaged.

Cowboy with rifle in left hand - 3 examples
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #83 on p14.
NOTE that this rifleman and the cowboy with pistol in LEFT hand share a style of horse that is distinct from the horse shared by the Lional cowboy, indian, and scout/ranger. Instead this horse appears similar to that of the Kentucky Derby puzzle made by Pal Plastics.

Indian with tomahawk in right hand -
four examples including an all-black example.

NOTE the Compendium 2nd Ed. lists only an Indian on horseback with a tomahawk in the LEFT hand, #84 on p14.
It says that version is soft plastic and from Hong Kong.
This version is the Lional hard plastic type included in the Indian Raid set, so I am surprised it isn't listed.

Keychain Mini Indian on Horseback
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #91 on p16.

Scout or Ranger (aka Mounted Police) (no firearm) - 3 examples, one with original card
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #87/88 on p15.
All of the Horse and Rider puzzles assemble in the same basic way, with a rotating tail piece as the key.

Comparison of Cowboy keychain puzzles -
Scout, Pistol (L hand), Rifle (L hand)

Bucking Bronco or Ride 'Em Cowboy keychain puzzle - four intact examples
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #80/81 on p14.
This puzzle is my least favorite - it holds together poorly and the key on the head is very fragile.

A Cowboy keychain puzzle produced in England 1995 - three examples
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #94/95 on p16.

Jockey or Kentucky Derby keychain puzzle - four examples,
two individual cards, and a store card.
Pal Plastics 1958
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #86 on p15.

Keychain Dutch Horse puzzle.
A blue version (Dutch, vinyl) - missing the ears (a common issue),
and a hard plastic version from Germany in its package.
Yes, the German version has its ears, but someone glued them in.

I obtained a nice red version including the elusive ears piece:

Two examples of either a Llama or a Giraffe with a fairly short neck

Birds and Fish...
[Back to Animals Menu]

#31/32 p6 - "Duck 1" - Lucky Duck[y] -
Pal Plastics / Plas-Trix

#33 p6 - "Duck 2" with seaman's cap

#34 p6 - "Duck 3" Pussy 2900 / Geramont Duck in top hat

#49/50 p9 - Bell UK Goose

#65 p11 - Penguin - 6 pieces - Kabaya Leaf

Penguin - 4 pieces

#64 p11 - "Owl 2" - 1-piece head - Kabaya Leaf

Owl - 2-piece head - Kabaya Leaf

#63 p11 - "Owl 1" - Pussy 2203

Owl - various clones of Pussy 2203
I have also seen but don't have a version with a cape.

#73 p13 - "Rooster 1" - Germany

#74 p13 "Rooster 2" - Russia

#45 p8 - "Fish 1" - Pussy DBGM 2204

Fish - HK

#46 p8 - "Fish 2" - Kabaya Leaf

Lucky Duck keychain puzzles - six examples
a.k.a. "Lucky Ducky"
Note on instructions in step D - "Find Egg Inside" - I found a copy of the Lucky Ducky with an egg still inside!
PT - Pal Toy or Plas-Trix

Puzzler Duck in Cannon Package

Keychain interlocking puzzle Duck with Sailor's or Seaman's cap - four examples

Note that the Lucky Ducky is wider than this version:

Its belt and loop pieces are correspondingly larger.

Duck in Top Hat - seven examples
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat.
This duck has often been used to advertise Geramont French cheese.

Bell Goose interlocking keychain puzzle - three examples

At the Antarctic!
Keychain interlocking puzzle Penguin
A very small, soft plastic puzzle from Kabaya-Leaf of Japan. Four examples.

I found this keychain Penguin similar to the Kabaya Leaf Penguin, but having a loop on the head, a sharp beak rather than the KL's rounded beak, and only four pieces. It arrived in a plastic gumball machine capsule.
A second instance has an opposite color scheme.

Keychain interlocking puzzle Owl - Kabaya Leaf Japan
This version has a single-piece head.

Keychain interlocking puzzle Owl - Kabaya Leaf Japan
This version has a two-piece head.
Two examples.

This type of Owl keychain puzzle has been issued in both soft and hard plastic.
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat, which issued the green and yellow hard plastic version shown below with the marking "DBGM."

Here is another hard plastic example. Note that it differs from the Pussycat version by having a shoulder eyelet, and lacking a tab on the neck piece.

Here is an assortment having different keychain attachments.
The third from left is soft plastic - one piece is marked "Hong Kong" and has a 'W' on the inside.

Keychain Rooster - two examples

This third example came from a seller in Mexico:

Keychain Russian Rooster

Keychain Puzzle Pieces Jumble #3

Keychain puzzle pieces jumble #4

Keychain Fish from Pussy of Germany
This one has an interesting springy internal piece that when squeezed opens the mouth.
I found another instance of the Fish by Pussy - this one in a package for ZeoZon, with instructions.

The ZeoZon Fish has the same architecture, including the spring, as the Pussy Fish - but its spring is blocked by a piece of plastic. The interior of the side pieces are slightly different, too. But both have DBGM on the jaw piece.
Here is a comparison of the Hong Kong fish, the Pussy Fish, and the ZeoZon fish.

The eyes of the Hong Kong fish bulge outwards, while the eyes of the Pussy fish dimple inwards.

This version of the Fish is from Hong Kong and is so stamped on the tail. It has a simplified body and omits the spring and opening mouth. Fit is poor.

Fish, soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf of Japan

Keychain Piece Jumble #5

Other Wild Animals...
[Back to Animals Menu]

#52 p9 - "Hippo 1" - Kabaya Leaf

#53 p9 - "Hippo 2" - Kabaya Leaf

#72 p12 - Rhino - Kabaya Leaf

#71 p12 - Rabbit - Kabaya Leaf

#48 p8 - "Giraffe 2" - Kabaya Leaf

#47 p8 - "Giraffe 1" - Roddy

#58 p10 - "Monkey 1"

#59 p10 - "Monkey 2" - same arch. as Monkey 1 but w/ cap
#60 p10 - "Monkey 3" - same architecture but has hair and cap - I DON'T HAVE IT.

#2 p1 - Bear with claws

#142 p24 - Berlin Bear (incorrectly categorized as "Robot 7" in Compendium)

Butagaz Bear

Tiger - 5 pieces - Japan



Hippo (small) - two examples - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Steinhardt architecture variant.

Rhino - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Keychain interlocking puzzle Rabbit
A very small, soft plastic puzzle from Kabaya-Leaf of Japan.

Keychain puzzle Giraffe - Kabaya Leaf Japan

A very rare Giraffe keychain puzzle, produced in the 1950s-60s by Roddy in Southport, England.

Monkey keychain puzzle (three examples shown but I sold the one with the green belt)
The body can be installed with the "belt" either in front or back and
the arms or legs can be swapped side-to-side. I am not sure of the intended configuration.

Keychain puzzle Monkey with Cap - Furfangos Hungary
#59 p10 - "Monkey 2" in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
This puzzle, with its characteristic keychain, is one of the Furfangos line produced in Hungary.
"Furfangos" means "Smart."
"Kabala Majom" means "Mascot Monkey."


A Berlin Bear - this type has claws and a crown
Three examples.

Six examples of a keychain Berlin Bear
This type has a robot-style body and a simplified head with a simple pentagonal "crown."

A German keychain puzzle zoo.

Butagaz Bear Keychain puzzle
Very rare! But I did manage to find two.
My first was slightly damaged - the piece in the lower right should
have a tab projecting forward and up to lodge between the legs.
Still very happy to have found it.

Found an intact example and traded away the other.

Tiger - 5 pieces - Japan
In the red yellow green series.

NOTE: according to (for example) Wikipedia and The London Natural History Museum, "Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles."
There are four major groups of reptiles: turtles/tortoises, lizards/snakes, crocodilians, and dinosaurs.
[Back to Animals Menu]

#10 p2 - "Dinosaur 1" - Stegosaur / Dragon Large

#11 p2 - "Dinosaur 2" - Stegosaur / Dragon Small

Stegosaur / Dragon Small - Kabaya Leaf

#1 p1 - Alligator - Kabaya Leaf

#235 p40 - Snake (+birds 4-in-1) - Kabaya Leaf
Incorrectly listed as "Curling Stone"

Triceratops - Kabaya Leaf

#12 p2 - "Dinosaur 3" - Brontosaur - Kabaya Leaf


Keychain Dragon (large version) - three examples
All soft plastic.

The Dragon also appears in a small version.
It has the same pieces as the large and is also soft plastic.
Here is an example in its package, with a size comparison to the large Dragon also in its package.
Also shown is a loose mini Dragon and its pieces.

The small dragon or Stegosaur appeared as part of the Kabaya Leaf keychain puzzle lineup.
Note the absence of the loop on the top back plate.
The pieces are also better molded and a bit more robust.

Alligator (soft plastic) - Japan - Kabaya Leaf Inc.

I found an instance of this Kabaya-Leaf puzzle in its package, complete with the instruction sheet shown here.
Although this puzzle resembles a Curling Iron, the instruction sheet says four different animals can be constructed - with all pieces used to make a Snake.
Soft plastic. Kabaya-Leaf Japan
Six examples shown.

  • つばめ means Swallow
  • すずめ means Sparrow
  • はくちょう means Swan
  • ヘび means Snake

A small plastic interlocking Triceratops dinosaur - Kabaya Leaf Japan
I found three but kept only one.

Brontosaur - Kabaya Leaf Japan
I obtained two but sold the white-headed example.

Keychain People, Robots, and Other Figures

William Waite was kind enough to provide some info on what I thought was called the "Contortionist" keychain puzzle. It turns out this model is actually known as the Wha Hoppen or Wrestler puzzle. The hapless wrestler has been tied into a pretzel by his opponent. I finally obtained an instance including the original card. This was marketed by the Harrison Co. of Long Island City NY in 1951.

Here is the Bell version, called the Wrestler, on an original card.

Five additional examples of the Wrestler.

Bibendum (Michelin Man) puzzles. This is the small version.
As a kid, I had a Bibendum keychain puzzle I got at a car show at the NY Coliseum.
It disappeared long ago, but after searching for some time, I finally found another one.
This puzzle is the last of four "Lost Puzzles of My Childhood" (Drive Ya Nuts, Phony Baloney, Screw Loose, and Bibendum)
that originally motivated me to start following auctions!

You can read more about the history of Bibendum on Wikipedia.

Bibendum, also known as the Michelin Man, is the official mascot of the Michelin Tire company, a French multi-national. Introduced in 1894, he is one of the oldest trademarks still in use. His name comes from the slogan Nunc est bibendum "Now is the time to drink" - see an early poster. Bibendum is white because early tires were made of white or gray (or beige) rubber - only in 1912 did they become black, when carbon was added. Early effigies of Bibendum could be somewhat frightful!

Michelin also began reviewing restaurants so that more people would travel further distances in their cars to eat at these restaurants. This in turn would wear down their tires faster, and force them to buy more. The star system that Michelin uses goes up to three and is broken down by whether or not it's worth driving to the restaurant. One star: "A very good restaurant in its category" - Two star: "Excellent cooking, worth a detour" - Three star: "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey."

Bibendum - the medium sized version.

Bibendum - the large sized version.
Architecture is similar to a kumiki puzzle.

I also found two in their packages:

Bibendum Trio

After finding the above Bibendum versions, I learned from Peter Hajek of the existence of a variant of the largest Bibendum - whose key piece is wider than that of the version shown above, with a correspondingly smaller left hand piece. At IPP37 in Paris I discovered a copy of this wide-key variant, shown below with its accompanying card and in comparison with the narrow-key version.

Narrow-key variant on the left in all comparison pictures. Note that there are other minor internal differences, including internal grooves on the shoulder and hip pieces, and circular tabs on the sliding pieces of the wide-key version, and different tabs on the right hand piece.

Blue version of the large, wide-key Bibendum

Esso Oil Drop Man interlocking keychain puzzle - 2002
Hard plastic, 8 pieces. The chest is a front and back fixed together.
(Seems permanent to me and I didn't try to pry it apart -
the legs and arms have flanges and slide into it in grooves.)
Very happy to have found this extremely rare keychain puzzle!
In pristine condition, to boot!

Since this one is so rare, I have taken photos of the [dis]assembly steps.

宇宙人ピピ パズル (Alien Phi Phi or PiPi Puzzle) -【メーカー】ジュニア Manufacturer: Junior (Japan) 1960s
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Elf 1" No. 102 on page 17.
My green example is missing its face disk and the nose pin.
From a Japanese description:
"It is a puzzle figure named Phi Phi from a children's drama series "Alien Spirit"
written by Sakyo Komatsu and directed by Kazumasa Hirai with music by Isao Tomita
that began broadcasting on NHK in 1965."
The show was a pioneering blend of live action and animation.
See the Wikipedia Japan entry for Alien Spirit.
Watch a sample episode at the NHK archive.
This puzzle was produced in the 1960s by the manufacturer "Junior"
in various colors including yellow, green, red, and blue - the TV character was yellow.

I found another example. This one has a face piece but was missing its nose, so I made one out of spare green plastic.

This Japanese cartoon figure is called "Naruheso-kun" (なるへそくん or なるへそ君くん ) which translates as "Navel-Boy." - Japan
Note the ball bearing that came inside the head to make it rattle.
According to the blog Before Mario, "the character Naruheso-kun was created by Aoui Yamane. Naruheso-kun is a cartoon figure whose main claim to fame is a violently popping navel. The Japanese word for umbilicus is actually 'heso' so his name translates to Navel-Boy."
NOTE that the card that accompanied this puzzle character says ヤダモン which is "Yadamon" so I first thought that was this character's name, but images of the Yadamon character do not feature the navel nor do they much resemble this character - images of Navel-Boy are a much better match.

I found a storecard and it came with a few paper instruction sheets.

This Japanese cartoon figure is Q-Taro - Japan

This version of the Q-Taro keychain puzzle came with its original box.
This puzzle borrows the traditional Robot puzzle architecture.

Another Q-Taro version, #121 p21 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
I don't have this. Shown for reference.
Pix courtesy of William Waite.

Skull keychain puzzle - Maruka - Japan
With movable jaw.
Shown as #123/124 "Skull" on p21 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
どくろ means skull, スリラー means thriller.

I found a second example:

I don't know what cartoon figure this is, but it came from Japan
A bit raccoon-like.
It has only five pieces but it seems complete.
The yellow example may be missing a ball-like tail.
I have seen this referred to as a "Tanuki" (たぬき) - a Japanese raccoon-Dog.

I sold my yellow example, after I found another example with an intact tail:

I found this five-piece puzzle Monkey from Japan that seems to be in series with the Tanuki.

This is a cartoon character Perman (see the Wikipedia entry about Perman) - Japan

Keychain Topo Gigio - Japan

Ninja - Japan (Maruka)
忍者 - means ninja
In the Compendium as Ninja #118 on p20.

I found yellow and red examples, too:

Elf / Monkey King - Japan
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Elf 2" #103 on page 18.
孫悟空 means "Sun Wukong" or the Monkey King
組立説明図 means "assembly drawing"

I found a store card complete with three sets of the Monkey King in four different colors: red, blue, green, and brown.

This version of the Monkey King came in a gumball vending machine type capsule. Its four pieces press together with peg-in-socket joints.

I found another example with a much more nicely rendered face:

Crazy Kid - Japan
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Kid with Hat" #106 on page 18
However, note that the example in the Compendium differs from my example in several respects,
including the cap, head, and eye structure, as well as the arms, torso, and legs,
and finally the card -
so evidently there exist at least two different versions of this puzzle character.
I did not disassemble the lower section including the legs - the pieces of this puzzle are fairly fragile.
怪物くん means "Monster-kun" which was a Japanese television show featuring a boy like this character.

I obtained an example of the Monster-Kun Kid puzzle shown in the Compendium 2nd Ed as "Kid with Hat" #106 on page 18.

The puzzle includes a small ball bearing rattling around inside the head.
Comparison with other version of the Monster-Kun kid.

Dancer - Japan
I don't have this. Shown for reference.
Pix courtesy of William Waite.

Shmoo - two examples, one with original card
Toy-Trix 1949
Also shown - excerpt from Billboard magazine of May 1949 offering "Shmoo Puzzle Keychains with fortune" at a dozen for $1.50 or a gross for $16.20.

As indicated on its card, the Shmoo originally contained a fortune - on a small slip of flimsy paper and nestled in the cavity in the white piece shown at bottom center in my photo of the puzzle's pieces. I found an intact example in one Shmoo!

Aside from the head and tail pieces, the Shmoo puzzle is equivalent in architecture to the Lucky Duck keychain puzzle issued by Pal Plastics, which also appeared as the Lucky Ducky that itself contained a fortune - one instruction sheet promised 'Find your fortune inside "Lucky Ducky."' (See step D in instructions shown below - "Find Egg Inside.")

Here are some interesting facts about the Shmoo, from Denis Kitchen's website, the Wikipedia article on Capp, and the Wikipedia article on the Shmoo:
By the postwar 1940's Al Capp's comic strip "Li'l Abner" - created in 1934 - had millions of fans and had made him millions of dollars. In August 1948 Capp (b. Alfred Gerald Caplin 1909 in Connecticut, d. 1979) introduced a new character called the Shmoo, which became an unprecedented merchandising phenomenon, spawning dozens of Shmoo-themed products and lasting through 1952 - and generating over $25,000,000 in sales in one year (in dollars of the time - more than $200 million today). Shmoos packed with candy were dropped by the U.S. during the Berlin Airlift. A Shmoo Savings Bond was issued by the U.S. Treasury Department in 1949 - Al Capp appeared with President Truman at the unveiling ceremony. Shmoos appeared alongside Capp on the cover of Time magazine in 1950. For a not-so-flattering account of Capp and his strip, see an article The Brand Called Shmoo by Daniel Raeburn at the Baffler website.

"The Shmoo is shaped like a plump bowling pin with legs, but no arms." Oddly, the card shows a Shmoo with arms, but the iconic character has none. More Shmoo trivia - Shmoos are white - there are evil Shmoos called Nogoodniks and they're green colored.

Howdy Doody keychain puzzle - six examples. From Lido.

Baseball Players (or Batter) (six examples - a few short of a team...) - From Lido.

Knight. From Lido. Three examples and a card.

Happo - The Jolly Clown Puzzle - seven examples.
Appears in 1951 Johnson Smith Catalog

I found the alternate card - it's much smaller than I expected.

An interlocking puzzle doll - thanks, Erhan!

Here is a female figure similar to the one I received from Erhan - but this one seems to be missing its chest piece. Perhaps it is a legitimate variant?

An interlocking puzzle doll - issued by the Czech company Druopta

An interlocking puzzle doll - Czech

An interlocking puzzle doll - Czech

An interlocking puzzle doll - Czech

Bartissol Man - France 2002
An interesting design with a spring-loaded button in the chest.

The Compendium 2nd Ed. lists nine Robots on pages 23 and 24. I have found a few more variants...

1. #135 p23 "Robot 1"
no chain mount, 2-piece head, head out first

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - no chain mount, 2-piece head, head out first
neck tab variant - Russia

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - shoulder loop, 2-piece head, head out first
Pussy Germany 2217
There are many clones of this model - e.g. China, Japan, Tamaki, Mechanical Servants

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - chain embedded in shoulder, 2-piece head, head out first
Pussy DGBM

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - loop on head, must remove shoulder first

2. #136 p23 "Robot 2" - 1-piece head

3. #137 p23 "Robot 3" - loop/antenna head, must remove shoulder first

4. #138 p23 "Robot 4" - fin on head, sharp nose

5. #139 p24 "Robot 5" - detachable long legs

6. #140/141 p24 "Robot 6 - Astronaut" - variant of Berlin Bear, comes in capsule

7. #142 p24 "Robot 7" - this is the Berlin Bear, misidentified

8. #143 p24 "Robot 8" - bear body, frustum head with face - DDR/Ukraine/Russia

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - Czech Robot - bear body, frustum head w/ no face, large round ears

9. #144 p24 "Robot 9" - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - Mini Robot - does not seem to disassemble

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - XL Robot - ring structure

#127 p22 "Space Man 2" - aka Martian - based on the Robot architecture

#122 p21 "Scuba Diver" - listed as a diver, but has always looked to me more like a robot e.g. Gigantor

Below are examples of "Robot 1" #135 on page 23 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Robot 1 is distinguished by having: no chain/cord mounting point, a two-piece head, and a right-shoulder piece that internally has a hook around the neck, such that the head/neck must come out first. Also, the thick part of the neck on the left is subtly engineered to have a small protrusion that snaps it into the body when inserted.

This black and white one came from Russia.
Note the different, more linear, neck, and the different eyes.
Otherwise the architecture is the same, and this robot also has no chain/cord mounting point.

This variant of Robot 1 has a loop on its left shoulder. Its head is still two piece and the right shoulder hook arrangement and head-out-first is the same.
Two examples - the green translucent one is from Pussycat of Germany, the purple-headed one is from China.

Two instruction sheets shown - the 102217 sheet is from Pussycat of Germany, and the Made in China sheet accompanied the purple-headed robot. The Chinese sheet is essentially a copy of the Pussy sheet.

There are several more examples below from different sources of the Robot 1 with a left shoulder loop.

Mechanical Servants Robot
Standard, plain two-piece head, head pulls out as first move, loop on left shoulder.

Robot with All-Stars card

Keychain Robot in package - China

Examples of Robot 1 with shoulder loops, from Japan.

Keychain Robot in box - Japan - Tamaki

I found a second example:

This version of the robot has a chain embedded in the left shoulder.
Four examples, two used for advertising (BASF, and Karo-As Cutlery).
One has bejeweled eyes, three have the marking DGBM on the neck tab. I believe the DGBM examples were issued by Pussy of Germany.

These all still use the hook inside the right shoulder, and head-out-first - note the subtle locking protrusion on the yellow bejewelled DGBM neck piece.

Comparison with other similar robots shown.

This Robot has a chain loop on its head.
It is hardly legible, but the back of the head says "HONG KONG."
Note that this one also has the provision for the chain to be embedded in the shoulder - two holes can be seen in the left shoulder.
This one has a major architectural difference - here, the right shoulder must be removed first, only then can the head/neck be extracted. The right shoulder piece has no hook, instead it has an indentation to accommodate a "pin" protruding laterally from the neck. If you try to pull the head out first, you will likely break this pin!

NOTE the 'T' shaped neck piece with pins, and how the right shoulder pieces have no hook but rather a notch underneath to accommodate the neck pin.

"Robot 2" #136 on page 23 is similar to Robot 1 but has a hollow one-piece head, and a shoulder loop. Two examples.

This robot has kind of a TV antenna on its head. Japan.
This is "Robot 3" #137 on page 23 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Two examples.
Of note is the difference in this robot's architecture, similar to the HK robot - usually one can first pull out the head, but in this case one must first remove the top right arm piece before the head can come out. You can see the pronounced protrusion on the neck piece which locks it in place under the arm piece.

One body piece has text on it: サロンパス which translates as "Salon pass." Looks like they make bandages. Maybe advertising?

This version of the robot has a sharp nose, pronounced mouth, and a head fin - Japan
This is "Robot 4" #138 on page 23 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Standard head out first.

I found a second example:

Keychain Robot with Long Legs - three examples
This is "Robot 5" #139 on page 24 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

After I bought these, I found a Japanese store card of the Long Leg Robot but it is missing one robot (though I suppose I could simply replace it).

Astronaut with Capsule
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. "Robot 6 - Astronaut" No 140,141 on p24.

NOTE that "Robot 7" #142 on page 24 is what I list as the simple (no claws) Berlin Bear with pentagonal crown.

Keychain Russian Robot - from a seller in the Ukraine
Architecture similar to the Berlin Bear
Appears in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Robot 8" #143 on page 24, where the country of origin is listed as East Germany (DDR).

I obtained one from Russia, in its bag with an instruction sheet:

Keychain Czech Robot
This faceless robot with large disc ears is not listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Architecture similar to the Berlin Bear.
This red example came to me from Russia:

A small robot - Kabaya Leaf Japan
This is "Robot 9" #144 on page 24 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Klaatu barada nikto!

Mini version of the Keychain Robot
I found three examples but none disassemble.

This tiny robot from Japan is not a keychain puzzle - but this particular character appears frequently as a container.

I obtained this storecard of big robot puzzles from Japan.
The nice, colorful graphics on the storecard - a rocketship and a blaster-wielding space cadet - are hidden behind the puzzles.

This robot does have six pieces and a keychain loop, but it is fairly large
and has a simpler architecture than the common robot puzzle - it is held together by two rings.
This version is not in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Below is a comparison with other robots.

A Martian - based on the Robot design.
This is "Space Man 2" #127 on page 22 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Japanese Diver keychain puzzle.
Three examples - one in its original package.
Slocum and Waite identify this Japanese interlocking keychain puzzle as a Diver, but it reminds me of Gigantor.

Keychain Insects, Plants, Fungi, & Molluscs

Three Ladybugs (two of orange/pink, and red/black German Pussycat version)

Ladybug (soft plastic) - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Dragonfly keychain puzzle - soft plastic - six examples, some in original packaging. Note the "short body / no loop" version in foreground (see below)...

This example of the Dragonfly is different from the Hong Kong versions - it has a shorter body and lacks a loop - and may have been issued by Kabaya Leaf Japan (I received it from Japan).
Note the lack of an eyelet and the smaller dimensions.
This is 32mm long with a 9mm tail, versus the normal 37mm with a 12mm tail.

Comparison with HK version:

I found a second example of the short-body/no-loop version, also from Japan:


Keychain Butterfly - two examples - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Keychain Grasshopper puzzle - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Keychain Cicadas - three examples

A keychain Beetle (with no horns) - two examples.

Rhinocerous Beetle - soft plastic - three examples (two in packages)

Rhino Beetle - Kabaya Leaf Japan
The KL version has no loop on the tail.
I found a second, green-headed example and sold the white-headed one.
Then found the example with a yellow horn.

Stag Beetle keychain puzzle - three examples

Insects store card (Rhino Beetle & Dragonfly, with loops) - Japan

Keychain Mushroom by Pussy of Germany - two examples

Keychain Almond - a four-piece interlocking Almond keychain puzzle from Spain

A keychain Gourd from Japan - Maruka
My copy is damaged, but it was a kind gift. Thanks, Peter!

I obtained parts of a second and was able to build a complete example:

This tiny token was inside the gourd:

I found a Gourd on its original card, below. It rattles, so I believe it may contain the token.

ひょうたん means "Gourd." And you can see in the upper right of the card that this is in the "Puzzle Corner" series.

Interlocking puzzle Clam - Kabaya Japan - soft plastic.

Interlocking puzzle Scallop - Kabaya Japan - soft plastic.

Keychain Artifacts
Score A Touchdown Football keychain puzzle - three examples
Plas-Trix 1949

In the Nov. 5 1949 issue of Billboard, Joker Novelties of New York was offering a "Football Puzzle Key Chain" at $8.40 for a gross.

This may resemble a Steinhardt configuration, but it is a distinct design and comes apart/assembles differently. I show pictures of the steps.

This one has been variously called the All-American / Cum-A-Part / Five Segment / Try A Pencil Football keychain puzzle - three examples

The letters T-R-Y-A-P-E-N-C-I-L are embossed in the pieces, two letters to a piece. One is supposed to poke a pencil in the tip to pry the pieces apart.

In 1955, Irving Steinhardt received patent 2712447 for this type of football keychain puzzle, called the "sector puzzle construction."
Note that the actual puzzle differs a bit from the patent - the loop is on one of the five segments rather than on a separate sixth segment of its own.


Here is a Football puzzle from Kabaya of Japan, in soft plastic. It looks like it would be a copy of the sector puzzle construction -
but its internals are completely different and it has six pieces.
Two examples - red and yellow

Here is another Football puzzle I received from Japan, in soft plastic. It has only four pieces.

This four piece Beachball puzzle also came from Japan.

I found three examples but kept only one.

Here is a very simple 2-piece version of the ball, from Japan.


Keychain interlocking puzzle Volleyball - Kabaya Japan. Soft plastic.


Puzzle Kun Volleyball - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Tennis Ball (?) (soft plastic) - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Two examples - yellow and blue
To me this looks like a tennis ball, but in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
it is listed as Basketball 2, #219 on p37

Keychain Soccer Ball - two examples - black spots and white spots.
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat.

Two colorful examples from Israel:

Soccer Ball - Kabaya Leaf Japan
A very different architecture than the "traditional" soccerball.
I'd never before seen pieces designed to fit by flexing.

Kun Soccer Ball - Kabaya Leaf Japan

I obtained a second one on its original sprues and with (unopened) instructions.

A six-piece hollow sphere / Soccer Ball - two examples.

Keychain Basketball

Keychain Billiards 1-8
Same architecture as the Basketball.

けん玉 Kendama puzzle - Japan
Hard plastic.
13 pieces for the body, 3 for the ball, plus one string.
Kendama, or Sword and Ball (a variant of Cup and Ball), is a popular dexterity toy in Japan.
See the Wikipedia Japan page on Kendama.
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as Cup & Ball 1, No. 233 on page 39.
The pointy-tipped rod (red here) slides out first, releasing the locking piece in the base (yellow here).
One of the base halves (the black one here) has a tab near its narrow end that locks it into the crosspiece -
so the base halves must be removed/inserted into the crosspiece hole one half at a time.

Kendama Puzzle - Japan
a boxed version, still on sprues

Jingle Bell - Japan
A second example did not contain an actual bell:

Keychain Legal Coffee Grinder (French) - two examples
The pieces are basically the Steinhardt cube.

Kumiki Barrel - three examples.

Keychain Barrel Puzzle in package - China

This Barrel is larger than the Hard Plastic Kumiki Barrel above.

A hard plastic barrel was issued by Kawada Japan

The Kabaya-Leaf Puzzle Kun Barrel

Lucky Mallet puzzle - Japan
Same architecture as the Kumiki-style Barrel

Keychain Barrel - Kabaya Leaf Japan
This Barrel has an architecture distinct from the usual barrel.

A keychain puzzle Bell was issued by the German company Pussy. Their version is made from a high-quality plastic and is well molded. The letters DBGM are molded into the bottom piece. The chain is embedded into the stem piece. Two copies are shown. I also obtained a copy from Israel - it is the same design but the inscription is missing and the plastic is more brittle. Its chain runs through a loop on the top.

Here is the copy from Israel:

Here is another copy of the Bell, from Kabaya Leaf Japan - note the difference in the stem:

Two examples, one came with a box. Hard plastic.

The bells issued by Pussycat and by KL are of two different sizes - KL's being smaller and having one less segment - here are several for comparison:

Dice keychain puzzles - three examples, with three different styles of chain attachments
I've had the white one since I was a kid.
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat.

Dice puzzle - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan
A different architecture than the Pussycat version.
The KL version relies on a flexible tab, and a friction-fit peg in hole.

I found a blue example, too:

This is the large Kun version of the puzzle Die - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Inverse version also shown, along with instruction sheet.


From dice to playing cards...

A Diamond suit keychain puzzle simple playing card from China.
The central diamond rotates in place on an internal vertical axis.
This neat little unusual keychain puzzle was very kindly gifted to me by Debra M. - Thanks!
If anyone recognizes the WM logo, please let me know!


A Club suit keychain puzzle simple playing card from China.
The central club rotates in place on an internal vertical axis.


Lufthansa Supercargo Crate advertising keychain puzzle.
This has quite a few more pieces than the typical keychain puzzle!

In 2022 I found a second example, but I sold it - this puzzle does not come along often!

Keychain Cheese Wheel - Wine and Cheese!
Four examples, one without stickers

Keychain interlocking puzzle Circuit Breaker (France) - four examples

Keychain interlocking puzzle Mini-Stotz Circuit Breaker (Germany - BBC)
Same basic architecture as the Robot.
Also has a small red "jewel" on the bottom of the green piece -
I imagine it is meant to represent an indicator.
Last image is a real mini-stotz.

A keychain puzzle light bulb.
Steinhardt architecture.
I don't have this. Shown for reference.

Keychain Trophy - Japan
Two examples - gold in package, and loose silver. Also available in multicolored.
A nice assembly, with robust plastic. I really like this one!

I found the colorful version, too.

Terramycine Spray Bottle adevrtising keychain puzzle - France I found four examples including one in a bag with its brochure.

Keychain Terramycine Bottle (yellow) - France

Kodacolor - France

Sarazin - France
Same architecture as the Kodak Box

BP Longlife Can - two examples

Lithol Can

Avioline Can - same architecture as BP Longlife can

Keychain interlocking puzzle Oil Can BP T.O.U. - two examples

There are at least two additional variants of the Longlife / Lithol / Avioline can - an Avioline in dark blue, and a Vernis Optimaxine in yellow.

I don't have these. Shown for reference.
Pix courtesy of Bob Rosenberg.

The Oil Cans and the Kodak Box puzzles employ similar mechanisms.

Antargaz Can puzzle - France
A Steinhardt architecture puzzle.
The keychain attachment must be removed for the key piece to slide down and out.
The non-puzzle form of this Antargaz Can keychain seems very common.

Keychain Lucky Charm - two examples

Two examples of a Lantern keychain puzzle
Note the difference in the corners on the base. The orange version, with rounded corners, was made by Pussy of Germany and is of higher quality.

This version of the Lantern is from Hong Kong

This version of the lantern came on a pole atop a base.
Probably Czech origin.

Legal Coffee Bean - four examples

The Legal Coffee Bean and Steinhardt Cube puzzles employ similar mechanisms.

Heart and Arrow keychain puzzle from "Mechanical Servants"
Also two examples of same heart but without the arrow
Has a rotational move - see step (E).

Heart on All-Stars card

I finally acquired an example of the very rare Peter Pan UK version of this puzzle with its heart-shaped card.

Heart and Arrow keychain puzzle - Peter Pan UK
The heart-shaped card is smaller than I expected it to be.

Heart interlocking keychain puzzle - three examples.
The pink one is by Pussy. The colorful one is from HK.
The architecture of this type of heart is similar to the Bell Goose.
I have instructions from the German company Pussycat.

Keychain puzzle parts Jumble #6

Keychain parts jumble #8.

Three examples of the Mystery Watch Puzzle
Tear-off instruction sheet on left, card on right (front and back)

In the U.K. the Mystery Watch was issued by Peter Pan.
Note the logo on the back, and the vintage safety pin clasp.

Grandfather Clock Keychain puzzle - Japan - Kabaya Leaf Inc.
Two examples.

Alarm Clock Puzzle - Japan

Bowling Pin and Ball
Three examples, two with card. Aka Skittles.
This one has a bowling ball hidden inside!

Bowling Pin with Ball Keychain puzzle store card

Skittle and Ball keychain puzzle (with original card) - Bell UK

Bowling Pin keychain puzzle - "Thin type" - two examples.
Compare to the bottle below.

Another Bowling Pin - similar construction but this one is fatter. Three examples.

Bowling Pin Keychain Puzzle in package - China

This bowling ball and pin came in a set of puzzles by Kawada, from Japan. The "Fat Pin" style. Ball is Steinhardt config. Second bowling ball also shown.

Bowling Pin and Ball set - Japan
ボーリング means bowling
Both the pin and ball in this set have novel architectures - the pin is formed around a central spine, and the ball is not quite a Steinhardt configuration - it has only five pieces.

Another set from Japan, but with a "thin" style pin.

Comparison of Bowling Pin puzzles

Keychain Bottle - two examples

An extra-large keychain bottle puzzle - two examples

Another example of the large bottle - this one labeled as Beer.

Keychain Movie Camera puzzle - the orange one is from Pussycat (Germany).
Four examples. Two marked "Bauer."

A wonderful small keychain puzzle Camera from Japan - #162 on p27 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
It even has a kind of shutter mechanism inside!
This puzzle is much smaller than I thought it would be - I'd been after it for a while and am very happy to have found it!
Previously I had obtained pieces of this puzzle, including an intact lens, but missing too many to come close to constructing one. This example's lens was missing the transparent piece in the barrel, so I was able to swap in the intact piece.

Slideshow Camera puzzle - Japan
Probably too big for a true keychain puzzle. But it does interlock.
Pushing the shutter button moves an internal spring-loaded ratchet, advancing a wheel having small images visible through the viewfinder.

Drill (Peugeot France) - three examples
The pieces of this puzzle can sometimes get wedged very tightly together. Take a look at the instructions - don't break yours trying to pry it apart! The bit/chuck comes out first, then the handle, then the top front cowl slides forward.

Good Luck Horseshoe or Lucky Horseshoe keychain puzzles - four examples

The Horseshoe was available with three different inserts: horsehead, clover, and Davy Crockett (in order from most to least common).

Lucky Horseshoe keychain puzzle on alternative card - Pal Plastics

The Good Luck Horseshoe with Horse Head also was issued in a small version.
The height (including the loop) and width (at the widest point of the horseshoe) of the large version are 1 7/8" (48mm) x 1 5/8" (42mm).
The corresponding height and width of the small version are 1 3/4" (43mm) x 1 3/8" (35mm).

Keychain Good Luck - Clover version - three examples
(Both sides of the yellow and green clover puzzles shown.)

Good Luck Horseshoe - Davy Crockett version

Tea Kettle or Teapot keychain puzzle
This one has an actual screw thread.

Vibromax Jumping Jack Tamper keychain puzzle

Wheel and Tire keychain puzzle

Keychain puzzle Suitcase

Keychain Linde Heimgefrierer - Pussy Germany

Keychain puzzle Top (Czech)

Here is a Spinning Top puzzle from Japan. Hard plastic. I found a store card.
This one does not spin well at all, though I did manage to get a photo of it spinning.

Keychain puzzle Yo-Yo - Japan
Absent from the Compendium 2nd Ed.
(I didn't feel like taking the string side apart.)
カラー means color, ヨーヨー means yo-yo.

Keychain puzzle Windmill (Czech) - two examples
The Windmill shares architecture with the Lantern, but here
the Lantern is upside down and its base is inverted.
The roof is friction fit.

This Old-style Telephone Interlocking Keychain Puzzle was designed by John Flower in 1952
and issued by the UK company Bell.
It has six pieces and assembly requires several pieces to be moved back and forth in sequence,
which is not typical for keychain puzzle mechanisms.
I like this one a lot!
This was designed by John Flower in 1952. 92,000 produced.
I show instructions for reference - but I do not have the card for this puzzle.

This hard plastic Telephone puzzle is from Japan. Issued by Ito.
It is #210 on p35 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
The instructions come from the "Head Sports" set card.

I found three in individual packaging:

This keychain Telephone puzzle is from Kabaya Leaf Japan,
part of their "Big League Chewing Gum" bonus series.

I found a second example:

A vintage Crown interlocking keychain puzzle, issued by Bell.
With its original card!
This was designed by John Flower in 1952 for the coronation of Elizabeth II. 235,000 sold.

More headgear...

Samurai Helmet () - Japan
One in a series (シリーズ) of at least four - this particular helmet represents Minamoto no Yoshiie (源 義家) - long antler pair

Fellow keychain puzzle collector William Waite has a complete set of four and has supplied pictures of the others.

The others include:
Kusunoki Masashige (楠 正成) - trident
Uesugi Kenshin (上杉 謙信) - crescent moon
Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源 義経) - thicker, shorter antler pair

(Information and diagram courtesy of William Waite.)


I acquired an example of the Kenshin Samurai Helmet:

All that differs from one helmet model to the next (aside from random colors) is the insignia shape piece insert.

Tower Bridge - Bell
Designed by John Flower in 1953. 28,500 sold.

Bell Piano Keychain Puzzle
Designed by John Flower in 1952. 40,000 produced.
I am very happy to have finally found one of these, with its original card!

Petrol Pump - Bell
Designed by John Flower in 1951. 172,000 produced.

Electric Iron - Bell
The first Bell keychain puzzle designed by John Flower, in 1951 - 134,000 sold.

Interlocking Keychain Puzzle Lock from Japan
I found one in its package, and a card.
I traded away the example in its package, since I prefer to open and dis/re-assemble my keychain puzzles anyway, and to scan the cards when possible.

Keychain PuzzleCorner Lock - Japan Keychain PuzzleCorner Lock - Japan
Keychain PuzzleCorner Lock - Japan Keychain PuzzleCorner Lock - Japan
Another Lock puzzle from Japan - this one has three toroids implementing the combination lock.
A "Puzzle-Corner" series member.

Interlocking Keychain puzzle Mailbox from Japan - Kabaya Leaf Inc.
I found three but sold one.

Interlocking Keychain puzzle Pitcher - Kabaya Leaf Japan

I found an example in an interesting box - the box shows the Kabaya Leaf Pitcher, Blender, Giraffe, Elephant, and Pay Phone, but also a sort of Zebra which I have not seen before!

Interlocking Keychain puzzle Blender - Kabaya Leaf Japan
I found a second example:

A Pagoda in soft plastic - Japan - Kabaya Leaf Inc.

Pagoda (hard plastic) - Japan
This is probably intended to be a model of picturesque Nagoya Castle.
Two examples shown, one in its bag with instructions.
I have another incomplete copy and scanned its instructions, shown.

Tokyo Tower (hard plastic) - Japan
東京タワー means "Tokyo Tower"
The Compendium 2nd Ed. lists this as #277 on page 47 "Eiffel Tower 1" -
but though the Eiffel may be more iconic,
the instructions that accompanied my copy clearly call this the Tokyo Tower.
The Tokyo Tower puzzle came with an instance of the Nagoya Castle puzzle,
molded in virtually the same plastic and colors -
I surmise these puzzles were produced by the same manufacturer.
Note, however, the differences between the previous Nagoya Castle instructions and these - there probably were multiple issuers of the Castle puzzle.

means "Castle"

Kun Pyramid - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Puzzle Tower (Eiffel Tower?) - Kabaya Leaf Japan (soft plastic) - two examples

Blackpool Tower, original card - Merit UK
Very rare. Also issued with pieces in colors - see Compendium p. 46 #275,276.

A set of three Kabaya Leaf Japan flag puzzles (four if you reverse the French to see the Finnish flag).
Details below...

American Flag - soft plastic - Kabaya

Union Jack Flag - soft plastic - Kabaya

French and Finnish Flags - soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Television - Japan
Hard plastic.
With instruction card.

I found several additional examples, each having a different image.

The keychain community had previously thought this puzzle from Kabaya Leaf of Japan was representative of the Kokugikan Sumo Stadium, however now this is believed to be one of a series of three "Gemstone" puzzles illustrating different gem cuts. See the next two KL puzzles...

When I first found this, I didn't know what it was meant to represent, so I called it a "Squashed Halfdome." I now believe this is one of a series of three Gemstone puzzles illustrating different gem cuts.
soft plastic - Kabaya Leaf Japan
I found three but sold one.

With the discovery of this puzzle issued by Kabaya Leaf of Japan, William Waite (who owns this example - I lost the bid) and I now believe that the puzzles previously known as the Kokugikan Stadium and the "Squashed Halfdome" are along with this one three Gemstones illustrating different gem cuts.

Nut and Bolt - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Coin Box - Japan

This Walkie Talkie (aka "Transceiver") puzzle shoots plastic "bullets" and came in a set of spy gadgets including a bullet-shooting lighter and bullet-shooting folding knife. Only the Walkie Talkie is an interlocking puzzle. From Japan.
Shown in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Walkie Talkie" #214 on page 36.
The antenna extends and retracts as one rolls the knurled side wheel.

Keychain Guns, Cannons, & Tanks

Raygun or Space Gun puzzle keychain - five examples, one with card.
A version was issued by Pal Plastics Inc. of New York.
Also Plas-Trix 1954

Here is the Bell version of the Space Gun, with original card.

Mini Space Gun 1985
It's got only five pieces compared to six for the full-sized Space Gun - the nose is a single piece rather than two.
The nose holds on only via friction so I imagine it is easily lost.
Two examples.

A Tiny Gun - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Interlocking Derringer - Japan

A Pirate's Pistol - Japan
Thanks, Jaap G!

Keychain Kumiki Pistol - Hong Kong, 1981?

I obtained this copy of the Kumiki Pistol from Japan - it is not marked "Hong Kong."
The assembly is the same as the Hong Kong version, but note the differences in the stock piece.

Keychain Space Blaster Guns
"Atomic Space Scout Gun" a.k.a. Atom Gun
Champion Plastics
Three examples

Here is an example of the Atomic Space Scout Gun in a box with a nice graphic, and instructions.

Merit Space Pistol Keychain puzzle 1953

Atom Gun with original card - Bell UK

This is a custom commissioned metal version of the Bell Atom Gun

At the armory...

Machine Gun or Tommy Gun keychain puzzle, issued by Lional 1961 - five examples

The Mystery Six Shooter Puzzle or Pistol or Revolver Puzzle
Four examples. I have an original card, and a separate instruction sheet (green) - both shown.
Also shown - comparison with Roy Rogers Straight Shooter.
The Mystery Six Shooter was issued around 1950, I believe, by Champion Plastics -
I found a reference in the July 1950 issue of Billboard.

(Note that the Roy Rogers gun's chamber is in two pieces as part of the barrel and doesn't
revolve, so the gun referred to in the magazine is definitely not that one.)

A version of the Mystery Six Shooter Pistol Puzzle issued by Peter Pan in the UK

The Roy Rogers Straight Shooter Gun Puzzle Keychain - eight examples.
A version was issued by Plas-Trix Co. of Brooklyn New York (in 1951)
I obtained one with an original card.
Examples of this puzzle often suffer from warped handles where the halves have separated at the heel and sometimes at the tip of the barrel.
Also shown - comparison of pieces with Mystery Six Shooter.

Keychain Cowboy Straight Shooter, with card
This puzzle gun has also been offered as the "Roy Rogers Straight Shooter."

This interlocking keychain puzzle revolver came from Israel. Five examples.
As you can see from the photo of its parts, it is distinct from the two other revolver puzzles I have.

A trio of interlocking keychain puzzle cannons, one in its package.
a.k.a. "Action Cannon"

Field Gun - Merit 1954

Artillery Gun or Field Gun - HK copy - two examples

I have four loose variations of the Field Gun -
the one with no markings is a soft plastic Jig-Toy;
one HK version is marked "NOXIS";
another HK version is marked simply Made in Hong Kong;
the Merit version is marked "Made in England."

This Field Gun came from Japan.

This is the "Action Puzzle Toy" Field Gun.

This miniature Field Gun puzzle is part of a set of three miniature puzzles (Field Gun, Jeep, Destroyer) issued in Hong Kong.

Interlocking keychain puzzle Tanks - three examples
PT - Plas-Trix

The same tank - even down to the PT logo on the base -
accompanied this different card issued by Pal Plastics.
Keychain Tank in package
Keychain Tank - in package

The Tank was also issued by Fairylite in the UK.

Keychain puzzle Tank - Bell UK

Keychain puzzle Tank - Peter Pan UK

An interlocking puzzle Personnel Carrier (Tank) from Japan.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Personnel Carrier" No. 397 on page 67.
The Compendium says the manufacturer is Ito.
I have a copy that is missing two wheels, but I found an intact store card.

On the top of the instruction card:
コンバトカー means "combat car"
パズルコーナー means "puzzle corner"

To the lower right of the main picture on the store card:
イギリスの means "England of" or "English"
装甲車 means "armored car"
サラテイン means "Saladin"

This is a model of the FV601 Alvis Saladin armored personnel carrier.

The logo in the lower left of the top of the card seems to read:
正ちぺん which transliterates as "Masa Chi Pe N" -
translations include "Regular" and "Right Side" but I am not sure how to properly read the logo.

The compendium identifies this as a Walker Bulldog Tank - Japan
Here is a colorful example I found in its package. It is the "M-41" tank, by ODK.

This is a British Comet Tank - Japan
#405 on p68 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
The first copy I found is damaged and the barrel is missing.
I found additional damaged examples, with packaging, and was able to construct a fairly intact example.
However, the treads are problematic - they are too tight and had melted onto the wheels and body.

I do not have this Tank puzzle. I saw it on a Japanese website and captured these images for reference.
I like that the available images show the pieces and [dis]assembly.
This is an example of #406 "Tank 4" on page 68 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Note that this example has its gun barrel whereas the example shown in the Compendium is missing its.


モグラ means "Mole"
タンク means "Tank"

A "Mole Tank" - Junior, Japan

Half-Track - Japan
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Armored Truck" #355 on p60.
I obtained my example as part of a "Head Sports" set from Japan.

Keychain Vehicles

Horse-Drawn Vehicles
This small sub-category includes various productions of the Covered Wagon, the Stagecoach, and the more rare Lord Mayor's Coach by Bell UK.
[Back to Vehicles Menu]

Covered Wagon - Plas-Trix
#374 p63

Covered Wagon - Pal Plastics
App-M1 #69

Covered Wagon - Merit UK
#373 p63, App-M1 #54

Covered Waggon (sic) - Bell UK
App-M1 #43

Covered Wagon with Horses
#375 p63

JigToy Covered Wagon (soft plastic)

Covered Wagon - in bag

Covered Wagon - DIY

Stage Coach - Lido
#398 p67

Stage Coach - Merit
#399 p67

Lord Mayor's Coach - Bell UK
#371/372 p 62



Westward Ho!
Keychain Covered Wagon (or Conestoga Wagon) - Plas-Trix (1954?)
Eight pieces - the canopy and wagon are split lengthwise.
Note that the smaller wheels go on the front - this facilitates steering.


Circle the Wagons!


Here is a version of the Covered Wagon from Pal Plastics, with original card

Merit Covered Wagon Keychain puzzle

"Covered Waggon" - Bell UK
The light blue plastic is characteristic of Bell UK.

Keychain Wagon with Horses
Happy to have found the horse team that occasionally accompanies the Wagon.

Keychain Covered Wagon - Jigtoy / Jig Toy (soft plastic)
Group shot of several different Jigtoys.

Keychain Covered Wagon - in bag

DIY Covered Wagon - HK - soft plastic

Stagecoach keychain puzzle - Lido
There's a passenger visible through the window!

A store display card:


Merit Stagecoach Keychain puzzle

This is the very rare Lord Mayor's Coach puzzle by Bell (UK).

As is usually the case concerning this particular puzzle, the "tongue" piece that would normally jut from the undercarriage forwards between the front wheels, is broken off. In the image of the underside, one can see the stub of the tongue piece - it is affixed (glued?) down the centerline of the bottom piece of the cabin - I believe the tongue and the cabin bottom were a single unit (note the seven pieces). The instructions say to move the "centre" piece (indicating the tongue) "left" but I believe this caused confusion resulting in the many instances of breakage - the tongue itself could not move relative to the cabin piece to which it was affixed - the instruction meant to move the whole cabin piece backwards relative to the carriage, leftwards in the diagram! Unfortunately the cabin piece can be very reluctant to move.
This puzzle has a very nice motion of the green "step" piece that functions as a lock - it really does "rotate" outwards and downwards to the side of the carriage, but only after the first step of moving the cabin bottom / tongue piece backwards to unlock the step piece itself. In the image of the pieces, one can see how the floor of the cabin piece, over which the step piece slides, is rounded.

Another small sub-category.
[Back to Vehicles Menu]

Hi-Way Patrol - Lional
#394/395 p66

Speed Cop - Peter Pan UK
App-M1 #61

Motorcyclist - Bell UK
#391/392 p66

Motorcycle - Puzzle Pet Japan
#396 p66
#393 p66 - Das Motorrad-Puzzle-Spiel - Germany
I don't have this.


Hi-Way Patrol (or Motorcycle Cop) keychain puzzle, issued by Lional Plastics Corp. of New York. Seven examples.

Peter Pan Speed Cop
Same architecture as Hi-Way Patrol, but smaller - see comparison photo.
Speed cop is on bottom.

This instance of the Motorcyclist was issued by Bell UK.
The colors are characteristic of Bell keychain puzzles.

Motorcycle from Japanese "Puzzle Pet" set

[Back to Vehicles Menu]

#340 p57 "Sedan 1" - Nu-Car

App-M1 #68 - Winner Stock Car

App-M1 #47 - Puzzle Car Bell UK

Mechanical Servants Sedan
#345 p58 "Sedan 3"

Sedan - Pussy / DBGM Germany

Soft Plastic Sedan

Sedan - Furfangos Hungary

Sedan - Russia

#346 p58 "Sedan 4" (Japan)

#311 p52 "Coupe" - Jericho Car

Renault Dauphine - CIJ France
#347 p58 "Sedan 5"

Renault Floride - CIJ France

Peugeot 404 - CIJ France

Volkswagen (VW) Beetle - Pussy / DBGM Germany
#354 p59

VW Beetle - China

#350 p59 Taxi - Japan


Several examples of the Nu-Car sedan keychain puzzle issued by Plas-Trix 1949.
Also known as the Winner Stock Car, issued by Pal Plastics Inc. of New York.
The Nu-Car included a "license plate" that fit flat beneath the car, held on by slots in the wheels.
The Nu-Car is listed as #340 "Sedan 1" on p57 in the Compendium 2nd Ed. The Plas-Trix "Get your Nu-Car" card is listed as #341.

I found a Nu-Car with its plastic license plate intact, as well as an example with an intact paper license, and several examples on cards from Knight.

Card front and back, and paper instruction sheet.

The Winner Stock Car version - Pal Plastics
Same architecture as Nu-Car.
The Winner Stock Car card is shown as #68 in the Appendix-Multiples-1 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Here is the Bell version of the Nu-Car puzzle, on an original card.
Same architecture as the Nu-Car.
The Bell card is shown as #47 in the Appendix-Multiples-1 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

"Mechanical Servants Car"
This one has a neat mechanism I like - see the rotation in step 4.
The Mechanical Servants (MS) Sedan is listed as #345 "Sedan 3" on p58 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Three versions differing only by specialized features on the roof piece are collectively listed as "Sedan 2":
#342 Fire Chief (single light dome), #343 Police (dual light domes), and #344 Taxi (taxi sign) - all produced by "DVS." I don't have those versions.
The striped MS box is shown as #11 in the Appendix - Packaging of Keychain Puzzles of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Sedan keychain puzzle by Pussy of Germany
The chassis piece has "DBGM" and a logo.
The Pussy / DBGM version is not listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Soft Plastic Sedan keychain puzzle
The Soft Plastic version is not listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
A soft plastic version was offered in the UK as a cereal box prize in the Jigtoy line. They were generally monochromatic so I don't think this one is an example.
In comparison with the Pussy/DBGM and Mechanical Servants (Hong Kong) versions, the soft plastic version is a bit shorter/smaller:

Soft Plastic version is on left. DBGM next, then MS/HK versions.

Sedan keychain puzzle - Furfangos Hungary
This version of the Sedan, with its characteristic keychain, is from Furfangos of Hungary.
My example of the car matches the flag of Hungary!

The Sedan in Russian packaging.
(I traded the white so don't have it any more.)

I found another Russian Sedan - this one is pink. The package was not sealed, so I scanned the instruction sheet.

#346 p58 "Sedan 4"
The C2E lists a Japanese version of the MS Sedan.
I received this example from Japan, but it has no distinctive markings.
The style of chain - a ring clasp rather than just a chain loop - does match the example shown in the Compendium.

Five examples of the Jericho Car keychain puzzle.
I found an original instruction sheet (actually on cardstock, not paper). It shows that this puzzle was issued by the Jericho Corp. of NY - hence its informal name. They called it simply the "Mystery Automobile Puzzle" however.

The French company CIJ - Compagnie Industrielle du Jouet (or "Manufacturing Company of Toys") produced several small plastic puzzles or construction toys. They include a nice interlocking model of the Renault Dauphine car, which was issued in four different solid colors including light blue, white, red, and dark blue. They are usually found loose, but a 3-pack bag was issued that included the light blue, white, and red versions. I found a copy of each, including the 3-pack.

I was provided with a photo of an excerpt from the 2006 book Les Jouets En Zamac C I J & J. R. D. Automobiles Utilitaires Les Carnets Du Collectionneur by Thierry Redempt and Pierre Ferrer, that would seem to address the question of what different puzzles may have been issued by CIJ. The header cards on the bagged puzzles have confusing numbering.

According to the book (paraphrasing) "Although plastic molds, we decided to integrate the small AUTO-PUZZLE in this edition. They are delivered in a small bag with a stapled label. A 3-pack of the Renault Dauphine included blue, white, and red versions together. There is a fourth in navy blue. Similarly, there is a Renault brand orange farm tractor. The other two are the Renault Florida known in blue and light green, and the Peugeot 404 known in red and black with wheels, sometimes white, sometimes black or both mixed."

I received a photo of a carousel showing that the Floride was issued in (at least) five colors including red, white, lime green, dark green, and dark blue. I have also seen the Floride in light blue, and the 404 in yellow. However, the various colors aside, I know of no other models beyond the Renault Dauphine, the Renault Floride, the Peugeot 404, and the Renault Tractor.

Keychain Renault Dauphine - two examples

Renault Dauphine - Blue
I found a rare blue version -
Unfortunately the top was cracked in half down the center, but I superglued it.

I found another dark blue example, intact:

I found an example of the Renault Dauphine in Light Blue

Renault Floride miniature puzzle - CIJ France
This one is pretty rare - and even though it is not really an interlocking keychain puzzle, most collections allow it.
I found the bagged example, then two loose examples.

Peugeot 404 from the French company CIJ
Probably too big to qualify as a keychain puzzle,
but this is one of several puzzle vehicles issued by CIJ and it is fairly rare.

VW Beetle - Pussy / DBGM - Germany

VW Beetle - China
Comparison with DBGM version:

A Puzzle Taxi - Japan (Maruka) マルカ

I found an example in its package on a card:

Vintage Cars
[Back to Vehicles Menu]

Old Fashioned Car - Lional
#326/327 p55

#351 p59 "Touring Car 1" - aka Jalopy

#352 p59 "Touring car 2"
NOTE: The Comp. 2nd Ed. makes a distinction between the translucent version of this car, and the opaque version which it calls Touring Car 3, but they have the same architecture/parts.

#338 p57 "Roadster 1"

#339 p57 "Roadster 2" - aka Town Car

Roadster - curved fenders - DDR

Roadster - flat fenders - DDR

Small Roadster - DDR
In Compendium 1st Ed. as #255 "Covertible" on p43


Old Fashioned Car (Open Touring Car) - Lional - four examples

Keychain Puzzle Jalopy or Touring Car - six examples

A larger version of the Touring Car - Japan
I found an example in gold in its package, and a colorful example loose.

The headlights are factory installed with the rounded sides facing forwards.

I found an example of the translucent version, too.


Sportster - hard plastic - Japan
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as Roadster 1 No. 338 page 57.
My blue and white example is missing its headlights and crank.
I obtained another, complete, example:

Town Car - hard plastic - Japan
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as Roadster 2 No. 339 page 57.

Keychain puzzle car (Germany)

A keychain push-fit Jalopy, from Germany.
Not really interlocking, but I've seen it accompany other keychain puzzles.

Small Roadster - DDR
In Compendium 1st Ed. as #255 "Covertible" on p43

Compared with the DDR Dog:

Sports, Racing, & Fantasy Cars
[Back to Vehicles Menu]

Hot Rod - Lido
#315/316 p53

Racing Car - Merit (same as Lido Hot Rod)
App-M1 #53

Speedway Racer - Lional
#328/329 p55 "Race Car 1"

Mini Racecar
#333 p56 "Race Car 5"

#334 p56 "Race Car 6" - Tiny Lotus

#330 p55 "Race Car 2"

#336 p56 "Race Car 8" Lotus

Large Lotus "Lacing Car"

R-381 - Japan
#331 p56 "Race Car 3"

#332 p56 "Race Car 4"

#335 p56 "Race Car 7"

#312 p52 - Porsche Carrera
Misidentified in Compendium as "Ferrari"

Countach - Japan

Honda S 600
Keychain Jaguar D-Type - Japan
Jaguar D-Type
#337 p57 "Race Car 9"

#348 p58/349 p59 Spectrum Patrol Car

#313/314 p53 Space Thunder Car


Hot Rod keychain puzzle - Lido
along with examples of the instruction sheet and a card.

Merit Racing Car Keychain puzzle

Race Car or Racing Car keychain puzzle
"Speedway Racer" - Lional
(In pic of 3, ends are Lional center is HK - note wheels and Lional's rounded cowl)

A mini race car. I found several examples including one in a capsule.
One type has a number on the cowl (I am aware of different numbers appearing,
though I have examples only with '1'), another lacks any number.
Both types say "Hong Kong" on the bottom.

Mini Race Car, with original capsule and instructions:

This Race Car puzzle is from Japan
It is #334 on p56 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Two examples shown.

Here is an F1 race car keychain puzzle - Japan
#330 on p55 "Race Car 2" in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
This car is also included in the "Puzzle Corner" set of three puzzles, shown below, that includes instructions on the back, also shown.

Lotus Race Car - Japan
This is the same design as the #330 car shown above.

This is a large version of the Lotus Race car.
This is too large to qualify as a true keychain puzzle, but I include it here to show how it is the same architecture as the smaller keychain version.
It is made from some nice brightly colored translucent plastic.
Note the "Lacing Car" label.

R-381 Race Car - Japan - from a Japanese set of three puzzles
#331 on page 56 of the Compendium 2nd. Ed.

This Race Car is slightly different from R-381
with a solid cowl and shorter side pieces, and no rearview mirror.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Race Car 4" - #332 on p56

No. 6 Race Car - Japan
Appears in the 2nd Ed. Compendium as #335 on p56 "Race Car 7."
The card identifies this as a Porsche Carrera.

Porsche Carrera keychain puzzle - Japan
This appears in the 2nd Ed. Compendium as #312 on p52 "Ferrari" -
but the card accompanying my copy clearly identifies this as a ポルシェカレラ Porsche Carrera.
I think the flowing lines on this little model are very nicely done!
I found three additional examples on their original cards:

I sold numbers 2 and 5.

A diminutive supercar (looks like a Lamborghini Countach) from Japan
I think my example is missing a rear wing.

This is a keychain puzzle model of the Honda S 600 sports car.

The rubber tires come off the wheels but I didn't want to risk full disassembly.

It came in a set of three puzzles from Japan.

I also found an example in an individual package with a card:

Keychain Honda - Japan


Keychain Jaguar D-Type - Japan Keychain Jaguar D-Type - Japan Keychain Jaguar D-Type - Japan
Jaguar D-Type
#337 p57 "Race Car 9"
The first example I found was missing the nice outer box:

The Compendium 2nd. Ed. identifies this as the Spectrum Patrol Car,
from the 1960s TV series "Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons."
It is #348 on page 58. My example was included in a "Head Sports" set of five puzzles issued in Japan.
Hard plastic. Rubber tires.

This appears as #313 on page 53 on the Compendium, where it is called "Futuristic Car."
However, the original card identifies this as 宇宙サンダー カー which means "Space Thunder Car"

[Back to Vehicles Menu]

#317/318 p53 - Jeep 1
Also #322 p54 - Jeep 4

#319/320 p54 "Jeep 2" - Merit UK

Hard Plastic Jeep, windshield down
Same architecture as Merit

Soft Plastic Jeep - DIY
#321 p54 "Jeep 3"

Soft Plastic Jeep - Jigtoy (monochrome) - no loop

Soft Plastic Jeep - with loop

#323 p54 "Jeep 5" - mini Jeep

#324 p54 "Jeep 6" - Japan

#325 p55 "Jeep 7" - Head Sports Set Japan


At the Motor Pool!
Keychain puzzle Jeep - smaller type with windshield up - 1949
7 examples
This is "Jeep 1" in the Compendium 2nd Ed. #317 on p53.
The Compendium also lists this model with the card I have as "Jeep 4" #322 on p54.
They are the same puzzle.

Hard Plastic, windshield down Jeep from Merit of England, with card.
The green piece says "Made in England."
This is "Jeep 2" in the Compendium 2nd Ed. #319,320 on p54.

Keychain Jeep - larger type with windshield down - hard plastic
Red, white, & blue version is from Kiem set.
Additional example was modified by a previous owner to insert a keyring.
These are further examples of the "Jeep 2" type.

Soft plastic large Jeep example from Hong Kong, in package
The soft plastic version has been issued by several brands, including in the Jig-Toys series. It is listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as
"Jeep 3" #321 on p54.

Soft plastic version of large Jeep with windshield down
several Jig-Toy examples

Soft plastic version of large Jeep - slightly smaller version, poor fit, loop on back.
See comparison with blue Jig-Toy Jeep.
The Jig-Toy versions do not have the loop on the back, so there are at least two types of the soft plastic Jeep.
The image of the soft plastic "Jeep 3" in the Compendium does not appear to have a loop on the back, however, the larger Jeep shown for comparison in the photo for "Jeep 5 - Mini" does have a loop on the back, and also displays the very poor fit of my example here.
I would say that the Compendium made no distinction between the looped and loopless versions of the soft plastic Jeep.

This miniature version of the windshield-down Jeep was included in a set of three miniature puzzles (Jeep, Field Gun, Destroyer) issued in Hong Kong. Hard plastic, and very tiny!
This is listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Jeep 5 - Mini" #323 on p54.

Going in the opposite direction from the miniature Jeep, this Japanese "Patrol Jeep" puzzle is almost too large to qualify as a true keychain puzzle, although it is included in the Compendium 2nd Edition as "Jeep 6" #324 on page 54.

Jeep puzzle - Japan (Ito)
パトロールジープ - means Patrol Jeep

This jeep version is listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as "Jeep 7" #325 on p55.
I obtained my example as part of a "Head Sports" set from Japan.

Utility - Trucks, Tractors
[Back to Vehicles Menu]

#360 p60, #361 p61 "Fire Engine 1" - Fire Chief - Lional

Fire Engine - Bell UK
App-M1 #45

Fire Engine - Merit UK
App-M1 #55/56 I don't have this.

Fire Engine with Siren
#362 p61 "Fire Engine 2"

Fire Engine - Knight Novelty

Fire Engine - Russia

#363 p61 "Fire Engine 3"
I don't have this.

#364 p61 "Fire Engine 4" - Japan
I don't have this.

Tiny Ladder Truck - Japan

#309/310 p52 Kottage Kar

#365/366 p61 "Flatbed Truck"
Motor Lorry Merit UK (hard plastic)

Motor Lorry - soft plastic with loop

Motor Lorry - soft plastic DIY

Motor Lorry - Jigtoy - soft plastic no loop

#356 p60 - Covered Truck Mechanical Servants

#367 p62 SAVIEM Truck France

Margnat Truck France

Fiat Truck
I don't have this.

#368 p62 Tow Truck

#357 p60 - "Dump Truck 1"
Mechanical Servants Dump Truck

Dump Truck - DVS HK

#358 p60 "Dump Truck 2"

#359 p60 "Dump Truck 3"

#369/370 p62 "Bulldozer" - Japan

#407/408 p68 "Tractor 1"
David Brown Tractor - Merit UK - hard plastic

Tractor - hard plastic - same as Merit
App-Packaging #49

Tractor - soft plastic, short stack

Renault Tracteur Agricole - CIJ France
#409 p69 "Tractor 2"

Renault Tractor small
I don't have this.

Tractor with Wagon - DDR

Tractor ("GYR") - Japan


Fire Chief - Lional 1955?
The small "driver" figure is often missing.
The fire helmet is not a puzzle, but sometimes accompanies the truck.

Keychain Fire Engine - Bell UK

Fire Truck with Siren - 2 examples
Comparison with Fire Chief - this siren version is larger.

A Fire Truck / Fire Engine / Fire Chief - sealed in its package - issued by Knight Novelty
Note that even in the package this is missing its driver/siren piece.
Also note the instructions on the back of the package.

This version of the Fire Truck keychain puzzle came from Russia (from a seller in the Ukraine).
Note how they solved the problem of the frequently-missing driver/siren piece -
they simply eliminated it - see the closeup photo of the cab, which has no socket.
Two examples - one in its package with original instruction card.

Tiny Ladder Truck - Japan

Kottage Kar (Ice Cream Truck) keychain puzzle - four examples
Lional 1954

There is a design patent on this puzzle: D172587 - Fleishman - issued 1954, filed 1953.

Merit Motor Lorry on original card - hard plastic

The "Motor Lorry" (Flatbed Truck) design -
This copy is made from soft plastic and has a loop on the bed.

Another example of the "Motor Lorry" design, in soft plastic.

Several examples of the soft plastic Motor Lorry
The first three instances (no loop, monochromatic) are examples of the Kelloggs 1959 cereal premium "Jig Toy" from the UK

Mechanical Servants Truck
I am told this style of truck was always produced with a canvas cover over the bed; folks often sell or buy the puzzle and don't even realize the cover is missing.

SAVIEM truck - two examples, one in package
Soci鴩 Anonyme de V騩cules Industriels et d'Equipements M飡niques
was a French manufacturer of trucks and buses.

The Margnat Truck keychain from France
isn't really a puzzle, but it appears in some collections.
The Margnat Wines company was founded in the 1890s by Edouard Margnat.
From the 1950s through the 1970s Margnat wines delivery trucks were a familiar sight in French towns.

Fiat Truck - France
I don't have this. Shown for reference. Pix courtesy of William Waite.

Keychain Tow Truck - two examples

Mechanical Servants Dump Truck

Keychain Dumptruck - DVS Hong Kong

Dump Truck interlocking keychain puzzle with a tipping bed - three examples

This Dump Truck is fairly large but appears in the Compendium as #359 on page 60, "Dump Truck 3." - Japan
Two examples shown - one in its original package which included a sheet of stickers.

Bulldozer - Japan
Appears in the Compendium as #369 on page 62

The David Brown Tractor by Randall/Merit 1954, with original card - two examples

Six hard plastic Tractor keychains, with packages

Soft plastic Tractor keychain

Tracteur Agricole Renault from the French company CIJ (Compagnie Industrielle du Jouet, meaning "Toy Manufacturing Company")
It's labeled "No. 2/11" but I have no idea what the other 10 models are.
This puzzle is fairly rare, but I managed to obtain three examples.

Here is another Renault Tractor puzzle.
This one has seven pieces.
This does not appear in the Compendium.
I do not have this - shown for reference.

A Tractor and Wagon - DDR (Germany)
Mostly friction/press-fit, but the tractor's cab does interlock into the base.

Here is a nice little tractor from Japan, in the "Green Yellow Red" (GYR) series.
It is press-fit using pins and sockets rather than interlocking, so technically it should be in my gray area section, but I like having it here with the other tractors.

The Compendium 2nd Ed. lists thirteen different Keychain Locomotive Puzzles on pages 63 to 65.
[Back to Vehicles Menu]

1. #376 p63 "Locomotive 1" - Flying Scotsman -
Peter Pan UK
See Appendix #57 showing the Flying Scotsman card

#377 p63, also "Locomotive 1" (same architecture) - yellow "Loco-Motive" card - US
I don't know who issued it.

2. #378 p63 "Locomotive 2" - "Loco" - Lido

3. #379 p64 - "Locomotive 3" - (vertical) hole in smokestack, 2 drive wheels per side, notched boiler, chain hole in steam dome, 14 pieces.
Shinier plastic than (4).

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - The Locomotive 3 design but in matte plastic and a bag package from China.
The header card shows instructions.

4. #380 "Locomotive 4" - Kawada Japan
no hole in stack, 2 drive wheels per side, notched boiler, pointy cow catcher, chain hole in steam dome, 14 pieces

5. #381 p64 "Locomotive 5" - Benkei - 3 drive wheels per side, notched boiler

*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - train with Locomotive and cars
Loco has 3 drive wheels per side like Benkei

6. #382 p64 "Locomotive 6" - soft plastic - 2 drive wheels per side, 8 pieces, monolithic boiler piece
Because of the notch in the boiler, this more resembles "Locomotive 5" #321 on p 54 of the Compendium 1st Ed.
That puzzle was dropped for some reason in the 2nd Ed. and replaced by #382, but 382 does not appear to have a notched boiler.

7. #383 p64 "Locomotive 7" - tall smokestack - 2 drive wheels per side, notched boiler

8. #384 p64 "Locomotive 8"

9. #385 p65 "Locomotive 9" - Kabaya Leaf Japan

10. #386 p65 "Locomotive 10" - Kabaya Leaf Japan

11. #387 p65 "Locomotive 11" - Kabaya Leaf Japan

12. #388 p65 "Locomotive 12" - Kabaya Leaf Japan

13. #389/390 - Bullet Train


#410 p69 - Trolley

The Flying Scotsman - Peter Pan UK

The Loco-Motive (Same architecture as Flying Scotsman)

The "Loco" puzzle - Lido (1954?)
The Lido name appears on the underside.
I found an original card, though the cutting process seems to have impinged on the top lettering.
Also shown is an original instruction sheet.

There are two sub-variants of the puzzle - see below and check the underside of the steam dome -
in one case there is a hole (blue), in the other it is blocked (yellow).

A pair of small keychain Locomotives.
This one has 14 pieces.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. this is "Locomotive 3" #379 on page 64.

This keychain puzzle Locomotive has the same architecture as "Locomotive 3" above, but the plastic is matte and the package indicates it is made in China.

Here is "Locomotive 4" #380 on page 64.

Another example, with pieces:

A locomotive from Japan, in its package.
In the 2015 Compendium this is #381 on page 64.
I obtained a second example in a bag. I also obtained a loose example and it came with its card:

The card identifies this as 弁慶号, "Benkei."
According to Japanese puzzle collector Naoaki Takashima, the original of the steam locomotive named Benkei
was made by Porter, Pittsburg, PA and imported to Japan in 1880 with other locomotives of the same type.
Further research identifies this as a JGR Class 7100, first used in Hokkaido. See Wikipedia.
It is still operable and preserved in Kyoto as in the photo shown below.

A Train Set from Japan - includes a Benkei style locomotive and two passenger cars.

This is #382 on p64, "Locomotive 6" in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
This locomotive puzzle has 2 drive wheels per side, and a monolithic boiler piece with no removable parts and a single notch that fits it to the cab.
The puzzle has eight pieces and came in a large gumball machine capsule marked "AA" on the opaque bottom/cap.
I obtained it from a seller in the US.

This is "Locomotive 7" #383 on p64 - it has a distinctive tall smokestack, 2 drive wheels per side, and the common notched boiler with a through-rod that comes out first.
It is marked "W.D.P." - Walt Disney Productions.
My example unfortunately is slightly damaged.

Another nice locomotive - Japan
In the 2015 Compendium 2nd Ed. this is #384 on page 64.
I obtained a store card that has wonderful graphics, and instructions:

Locomotive set - Kabaya Leaf Japan
Details on these four puzzles below.
Also shown with two other types of locomotive keychain puzzle for comparison.

Locomotive (soft plastic) - from Kabaya Leaf of Japan
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as Locomotive 09, No. 385 on page 65.

Another type of vintage Locomotive, in soft plastic - from Kabaya Leaf of Japan
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as Locomotive 12, No. 388 on page 65.

A third type of vintage locomotive - No. 387 on page 65 in the Compendium. Kabaya Leaf Japan
Two examples.

A more modern Locomotive, in soft plastic - from Kabaya Leaf of Japan
Listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as Locomotive 10, No. 386 on page 65.

Locomotive on card - Japan
This is "Locomotive #13" in the Compendium - #389/390 on page 65
新幹線 ひかり means Shinkansen Hikari (train) - the famous Bullet Train.

This Locomotive came in a small display box with "EVP M 1.20" marked under the base, and "Santa Fe" on its boiler.
It has only three body pieces (the various bits on the boiler are glued in) plus the three axles with wheels, but the boiler and cab do have locking tabs that engage the chassis.

Electric Tram (Trolley) - Japan

ちんちん transliterates as "chinchin" and means tinkle, jingle, or whistle
電車 means "electric train"
コーナー means "corner"
説明図 means "explanatory drawing"

Keychain Boats/Ships

Examples of the Showboat (aka Ferry) - Lional
A flotilla!
In the group shot, the leftmost two are HK repros.
The chain eyelet is smaller on the HK examples.
Lional is molded on the bottom of Lional examples.
Listed as #418/419 "Showboat 1" on p70 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Show Boat - Peter Pan UK with original card
Shown as App-M1 #60 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Ferryboat - Bell UK with original card
Shown as App-M1 #44 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.

The Mini Ferryboat or Mini Showboat - five examples.
This is #420 "Showboat 2 - Mini" on p70 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Shown in comparison with a regular-sized Lional Ferryboat.

I found one in a capsule, with instruction sheet.

Closeups shown below of two different Hong Kong markings - on the hull (left) versus the eyelet (right):

Cruise Ship keychain puzzle - five examples (but I traded one away).
Soft plastic.
They are all marked "CHINA" (with a backwards 'N') on the bottom.

Cruise Ship keychain puzzle - Put & Take Apart version - Hong Kong.
Many examples.
This version has no printing on the bottom.
Listed as #415 "Ferryboat" on p70 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Cruise Ship - Kabaya Leaf Japan
This version has no loop on the stack, and its pieces are far more precisely made.

A comparison of three versions of the Cruise Ship puzzle.

Above, four P&T on the left, four CHINA on the right, and one KL center.
Below, top to bottom in the first image, CHINA has orange stack, P&T has red, and KL has white stack.

Note that on the Kabaya-Leaf version, aside from the absence of the loop, the bridge is not as tall,
the aft deck is shorter, and the detail on the foredeck is sharper.

Here are the pieces of the three versions.

Destroyer - Merit 1954 - two examples.
Hard plastic.
The Merit Destroyer is #411/412 "Destroyer 1" on p69 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.
Note: no keychain hole, square bridge tower, complex tail.

Keychain Battleship - no brand noted. Three examples.
Hard plastic, same construction as Merit Destroyer.
Hole for chain in tail.

Keychain Battleship - alt. version
Hard plastic
Note: rounded bridge, and simplified tail.
This is #413 "Destroyer 2" on p69 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Keychain Battleship - another alt. version
Soft plastic
Note: small stack, loop at back

This miniature version of the Destroyer puzzle is part of a set of three miniature puzzles (Destroyer, Field Gun, Jeep) issued in Hong Kong.
This is #414 "Destroyer 3 - Mini" on p69 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
The package of three mini puzzles is shown as #41 in App-M2.

Steamboat - Bell (UK) - designed in 1952 by John Flower for Bell
Hard plastic.
This puzzle is very difficult to [dis]assemble because it fits too tightly and relies
on flexing the deck pieces. The soft plastic Hong Kong versions are easier to manipulate.
The open-sided deck piece is fragile and is broken at its narrow side in my copy.
I am not surprised the Bell version is rare.
This is #421/422 "Steamboat 1" on p71 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Jigtoy Liner - from a seller in the UK.
*NOT IN COMPENDIUM* - though a soft plastic version from Hong Kong is listed as #423 on p71.
The Jigtoy puzzles were included as premiums/prizes in various cereal boxes, and came on sprues.
They are soft plastic, in a single color - though various colors were issued.
Note how the instructions here miss the point of Flowers' original design where the deck layer with a side opening turns out first, releasing pressure so the superstructure can be removed.

Ship keychain puzzle - with package, made in HK
Soft plastic. Two examples.
This design had also been issued by Bell and called the Steamboat.
I have also seen it called the Cargo Boat.
The Compendium 2nd Ed. lists a soft plastic Hong Kong Steamboat as #423 "Steamboat 2" on p71 but the image shows an incorrect assembly.

Examples of the soft plastic Steamboat / Cargo Boat / Liner
(One incomplete.)
Made in Hong Kong can be seen on the bottom.

"Action Puzzle Toy - Ship" - another soft plastic version of the Liner.

Liner - Japan
Three examples.
Note that the instructions relate to the traditional Liner assembly but are incorrect for this much simpler puzzle.

Keychain Ship (pink) - soft plastic

Keychain Sailboats - soft plastic
This is #417 "Sailboat" on p70 of the Compendium 2nd Ed.

This is the Kabaya Leaf Sailboat - Kabaya Leaf Japan
The lack of loop on the main sail piece is characteristic of the Kabaya Leaf Japan version

I found another:

This sailboat version came from Japan.
This appears to be a "Frankenstein" using the bottom two pieces of the Cruise Ship.

Missile Boat from Japanese "Puzzle Pet" set
This set is shown in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #33 in App-M2 where the manufacturer is listed as Daiwa.

This is #416 "PT 20 Boat" on p70 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.
I don't have this. Shown for reference.
シュプラ丸 means "Supramaru" - in Japanese, "Maru" is a suffix commonly applied to ship names.

ジュニア means "Junior"
フライング means "Flying"
ジヤツク号 means "Jack"

An "invisible" Submarine - from Junior of Japan

Puzzle Corner Submarine - Japan
I don't have this. Shown for reference.
原子カ潜水艦 means "nuclear submarine"
シーウルフ means "Sea Wolf"
I found a Japanese blog page devoted to this Sea Wolf sub. They claim "Overall length about 11.7 cm."

Keychain Flying Machines

Jet Airplane keychain - two loose examples - Pal Plastics?
Also an unassembled example in its package, and a filled store card by Knight Toy and Novelty Inc.

Five examples of the "Atomic Jet Puzzle Plane" aka "Mystic Jet Puzzle Plane" - Champion Plastics Corp. 1949
Note the rounded wingtips and chain attachment loop.
The wings say "JET 1148"

This is the Atomic Bomber Puzzle Keychain issued by Toy-Trix 1951
(See Compendium 2nd Ed. Appendix #41)
I found a store card with some puzzles and instruction sheets still attached.

Note the oval-shaped, pointed wingtips and hole in the wing for the chain.
The tail has "USA" in raised letters on it.

Four examples - two with a one-piece fuselage+tail (shown first, with red and yellow tails),
and two with two pieces (blue tails) - see below for details.

Here is a comparison of a separate-tail type Atomic Bomber with the "JET 1148"

Shown below, instructions I found show the "LOCK" piece and the characteristic oval wing and body pieces, but note the fused tail.

As depicted in the pink instruction sheet, here is the alternative body piece for the Atomic Bomber puzzle -
incorporating the usually separate vertical rudder into the fuselage's central piece.

Below is a comparison - one with the one-piece fuselage with tail, and the other with a separate tail.

Another variant of the Atomic Jet airplane keychain puzzle with a smaller, pointed wing having "JET PLANE" embossed on it. Three examples.

Plane - Bell UK
Same architecture as the Jet 1148, but note here the wing is unmarked.

Keychain Jet Fighter - Merit (hard plastic) 1954

Originally, I found the "Jet Fighter" in soft plastic.
To me, it looks more like a bomber than a fighter.

I found a soft plastic version in yellow, too.

Here is a version of the Jet Fighter in hard plastic that features a pilot!

Another version of the Jet Fighter design, but this Hong Kong package shows a more likely image (IMHO) of a passenger prop.
Two examples.

This version of the Merit Jet Fighter was produced in Russia.
Purchased from a seller in Ukraine.

Russian IL-62 keychain puzzle jet airplane - two examples

Russian "Boing" Airplane puzzle

This "Puzzle Corner" Boeing 747 is from Japan.
It is not in the Compendium 2nd Ed.

Another Airplane keychain puzzle from Japan, also not in the Compendium.
My example is missing its propeller.

I found an incomplete instance of a Jumbo Jet puzzle from Japan.
Sadly, it is missing five pieces of the nose, and the undercarriage piece is damaged. Still, an interesting find!
In the Compendium 2nd Edition as "Airplane 8" #433 on page 73.
With no scale shown, it was difficult to tell how small this puzzle is until I received the pieces.

I obtained a complete example, shown below.

Since this puzzle is both rare and fragile, I have taken photos of the disassembly sequence. In particular where the bottom main fuselage piece narrows and joins the bottom tail piece, both of my examples arrived exhibiting damage - a tiny tongue of the main piece fits into a slot on the tail piece and is too easily cracked off. However, this does not overly compromise structural integrity.

The first step in disassembly is to turn the plane over and poke upwards the small rectangular tab towards the tail, as an assist in lifting out the upper fuselage end (the removed blue piece here). This is tight, and will stress the fragile joint mentioned above, so be careful.

With the fuselage end removed, the top part of the next forward section (green here) can be slid backwards. Then, the roof of the forward cabin can be slid backward (white here). Both movements will be tight.

With the roof moved back, the roof (white) and windshield (red) part of the cabin can be removed upwards - there are two tabs below, holding the top on via friction - again, this move will be tight. After the roof and windshield pieces are removed, they can be carefully separated - don't damage the hook in the roof piece. Now remove the main cabin block (red here).

The top (green) part of the overwing cabin can now be slid forward and removed from its underlying (white) piece - it holds on via a kind of tongue-in-groove. The nosecone comprises two pieces and is attached to the bottom main fuselage by a similar kind of tongue-in-groove. Move the nosecone down and off. The bottom (white) part of the overwing cabin can be slid backwards and then removed upwards - it has a forward-facing hook that juts down through loops in both the upper tail piece (green) and the main wing (yellow). Here again be careful of that fragile hook and patient with a tight fit.

The two pieces of the nosecone can be separated - the lower has a tab that pulls out of a socket in the upper. The upper tail piece (green) can be slid forward, up, and off the lower tail piece (blue), which has a forward-facing hook that juts up through a loop in the upper tail piece. Once the upper tail piece is removed, the rudder can be slid backwards and removed upwards - this is tight. Finally, if the bottom main fuselage remains unbroken, it can be separated from the bottom tail piece - or they just fall apart.

In 2022, I found a pristine example, shown below. For fun I also show the Jumbo Jet with the Lufthansa Supercargo puzzle.

Keychain F-86D - ODK Japan - Odaka Sanyo (Odaka Industries)

Keychain F-104 - ODK Japan - Odaka Sanyo (Odaka Industries)

Airplane ("Fat Airplane") a.k.a. Aeroplane - five examples

In Japan, this airplane is known as the "Zerosen" or Zero.
ゼロセン translates as "Zerosen." The example below is from a Japanese set of three puzzles, as are the instructions on yellow card.

The instruction sheet below accompanied a loose high-quality example from Japan.

Here is a comparison of three Zero examples - one from Hong Kong (green), one from the Japanese set of three (yellow cockpit), and one loose example from Japan that came with the instruction sheet above (black cockpit). The latter seems to me to be of the highest quality of the three. Both Japanese versions have a keyed separate cockpit piece, separate wing pieces, a keyed propeller shaft, and a two-part tail cone. The Japanese versions are almost identical except that the version from the set has a hollowed-out tail piece. The Hong Kong version is so emblazoned on its tail.

Large airplane with folding gear, in package.

A rare keychain Zeppelin - Ito of Japan

Keychain Helicopter - Lido
Original card, and an instruction sheet.

Keychain Helicopter
The Lido design, but in soft plastic.

The Jig Toy Helicopter, in orange
Shown with other Jig Toy puzzles including a Lorry, Jeep, Field Gun, and Wagon

Helicopter - Merit 1954 on original card - hard plastic

A version of the Helicopter in soft plastic from Hong Kong.

Helicopter - Bell UK - with original card

The Lodaline (Dutch) Helicopter keychain puzzle - two examples (soft plastic)

Puzzle Helicopter - Japan
The rotor turns when the wheels turn, via internal gearing.
In the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #442 "Helicopter 2" on page 74.
Instructions on the card of a set.

This Helicopter puzzle is also from Japan but has only five pieces.

The 5-piece Helicopter and the 5-piece Tanuki/Raccoon seem to be from the same series...

This is #445 "Helicopter 4" on page 75 in the Compendium 2nd Ed. From Japan.
Very happy to have found one, even though this example is missing its left side wheel.
I really enjoy the way this puzzle interlocks.


Space Ship keychain puzzle - three examples
Champion Plastics Corp.
There is a design patent for this puzzle: D167570 - Haines - issued 1952, filed 1952.

Bell of the UK also issued a version of the Space Ship

As did Peter Pan of the UK...

Rocket Ship keychain puzzle - Peter Pan UK

At the launch pad...
the Blast Off Space Ship Puzzle with Secret Compartment - four examples

A really nice rocket ship. Translucent hard plastic - Kawada Japan

Here is a version in a Japanese package, made in China. Two examples.

Outer Space Rocket with card
Similar construction as above rocket, but with a longer pointy nosecone.
Second example from Japan shown in its original package.

Japanese Rocket Puzzle Set

Japanese Space Plane
I purchased one that came in a box, and also found a sealed blister package from Japan.

Japanese SF Spaceship (store card)

Apollo Command Module and Lunar Lander set (Japan)
(comes with small sheet of stickers)

A slider on the side of the Command Module extends a probe that can dock in the top of the LEM and lock them together.

Space Plane - Bell (UK)

Planet Plane - Bell (UK)
designed by John Flower in 1953 for Bell

Thunderbirds 2 spaceship - Japan (from a set of 3 puzzles)
Thunderbirds are Go! (I had to say it.)

Keychain puzzle piece jumble #9

Keychain puzzle piece jumble #10

Keychain Puzzle Sets

Lional Indian Raid set
Includes two Indians on horseback, each holding a tomahawk in the right hand and two cowboys on horseback, each holding a pistol in the right hand.

Apollo Command Module and Lunar Lander set (Japan)

A set from Chadwick 1977 - made in HK
The instructions are not the clearest...

Set of Six Keychain Puzzles
Keychain puzzle 5-pack
I am very pleased to have found this -
not only does it include a Helicopter, Flatbed Truck, and Destroyer
(nice puzzles of which I already have copies),
it also includes a Jeep with an unusual assembly,
and the rare Battleship.

Keim Keychain Puzzle Set from West Germany on original card
Includes a Plane, Destroyer, and Jeep in red, white, and blue.

Keychain Puzzle Piece Jumble #11

Hong Kong Keychain Puzzle Group

Mini Keychain Puzzle Set - Hong Kong

Western Take-Apart Puzzle Set

Military Take-Apart Puzzle Set

Keychain puzzle set in package, from Ford Plastic Factory Hong Kong

Keychain Puzzles from Punch

I am very happy to have found this set of three puzzles from Maruka of Japan, which includes a small puzzle of the Thunderbirds 2 Spaceship - one of my favorite childhood science fiction toys. Also included is the "R-381" Race Car (#331 in the Compendium 2nd Ed.), and a "Zerosen" (aka "Fat Airplane").
Note the other puzzles listed on the back of the card!
(I found a second exmple.)

This set includes the Thunderbirds 2 Spaceship, and also includes a Honda S 600 sports car, as well as the Gourd.

Compare the backs of the cards of this and the other Thunderbirds 2 set, and note the different puzzles depicted - seems like the lineup varied over time...

Here is another great set from Japan, marketed as "Head Sports."
The back of the card gives instructions for the five included puzzles.
I found two examples of the set.

Here is another "Head Sports" set.
This set includes a Helicopter, Tank, Thunderbirds 2, Halftrack, and Jeep.
The back of the card gives instructions for the five included puzzles.

A "Puzzle Corner" set of three - Japan - two examples

"Puzzle Pet" set including a Motorcycle and Missile Boat - Japan - three examples including one with alternative packaging...

Set of spy gadgets including bullet-shooting lighter, walkie talkie, and folding knife - Japan

Set of large puzzles including a Rocket, Padlock, Camera, and Pistol - Japan

Set of games including several keychain puzzles - Japan

2 Take Apart Puzzle Toys (Rocket and Gun)

Bright Brain set of four puzzles

In addition to a Six-piece Burr and a Diagonal Star, this set includes a Kumiki Ball and a Cage Burr.

Bright Brain set of two puzzles - larger, jigsaw type with pins.

This card of nine puzzles supposedly served as a salesman's display.

These are two sets of small interlocking puzzles issued by Reiss in the 1980's - The Small Frys and 3 Little Guys.
There is a "6-D" sphere, a 12-piece diagonal star (each "normal" piece is split in half lengthwise), and an 18-piece lattice burr in each set - the Small Frys are black and white plastic while the Little Guys are clear. We've seen those puzzles before - but here the diagonal star is a very annoying dexterity puzzle.
These are all slightly under two inches on an edge, but they seem too big for true keychain puzzles, though I have seen some collections count them.
Info on Reiss Games can be found at the Fandom Wiki. Reiss was founded in 1971 by Robert Reiss, then became a subsidiary of National Paragon Corporation. A fascinating interview with the very articulate Bob Reiss can be seen at Bootstrapping101. Paragon-Reiss declared bankruptcy in the 1980's. According to Boardgamegeek, Reiss had various divisions including Gamut of Games, Dynamic Design Industries, Hoi Polloi Inc., and Romany Merchandise Corp.



Puzzles from Mechanical Servants

According to Bloomberg: Mechanical Servants, LLC was founded in 1946 and based in Melrose Park, Illinois. According to an old Wiki entry: Mechanical Servants was incorporated in 1955 by Harold Baum under the name Mechanical Servants, Inc. The company originally focused on manufacturing mechanical vending machines and providing the products to be sold. In the late 1980s, the company shifted its focus from vending to traditional retail outlets by changing its packaging, and offering its products in a blister packed format. On March 3, 2015 it was announced that Cleveland-based private equity group Weinberg Capital Group had acquired Convenience Valet and its parent Mechanical Servants, LLC.


Puzzles from Lional

Lional issued a boxed set of 10 puzzles - I don't have it, but I snagged an image of the cover,
which shows their selection. All are included below and are marked with a [B].
(The box is listed in the Compendium 2nd Ed. as #54/55 in the Appendix - Multiples-2 section.)

Lional issued other puzzles - I count 16 varieties:

  • The Clown riding an elephant - they called this
    Jumbo even though that name was used elsewhere
  • "Desert Patrol" - man riding a camel
  • The Mule Train (Mule Rider / Burro rider) [B]
  • The "Indian Raid" set included a cowboy
    on horseback and an indian on horseback
  • Mounted Police (Scout / Ranger)
  • Tommy Gun [B]
  • Hi-Way Patrol [B]
  • "Good Luck" Horseshoe with three different inserts:
    Horsehead [B], Lucky Clover [B], and Davy Crockett
  • Speedway Racer (many HK knockoffs) [B]
  • Old Fashioned Car [B]
  • Fire Chief (fire truck) [B]
  • Kottage Kar [B]
  • Showboat (many HK knockoffs) [B]


Puzzles from Plas-Trix

  • Lucky Ducky
  • Puzzle Pup Jr.
  • Jumbo the Elephant (no rider)
  • Don-Key
  • Score a Touchdown Football
  • Space Gun
  • Roy Rogers Straight Shooter
  • Tank (with revolving gun turret)
  • Covered Wagon
  • Nu-Car


Puzzles from Lido

Note how all the Lido puzzles use the rotating skewer lock.
I count 7 varieties.

  • Howdy Doody
  • Batter
  • Knight with Sword
  • Stagecoach
  • Hot Rod
  • Loco
  • Helicopter


Puzzles from Peter Pan

10 puzzles.

I acquired the final Peter Pan puzzle with card that I needed to finish the set of 10 - the Tank - on 3/15/21.

  • Ball
  • Dog
  • Watch
  • Six Shooter
  • Speed Cop
  • Flying Scotsman
  • Showboat
  • Rocket Space Ship
  • Tank
  • Heart (with Arrow), Heart-shaped card


Puzzles from Merit

13 puzzles.

'**' means I don't have it.

  • Blackpool Tower (very rare)
  • Covered Wagon
  • David Brown Tractor
  • Destroyer
  • Field Gun
  • ** Fire Engine
  • Helicopter
  • Jeep
  • Jet Fighter
  • Motor Lorry
  • Racing Car
  • Space Pistol
  • Stagecoach


Puzzles from Bell

29 puzzles.

Many of these puzzles were designed by John Flower in the 1950's.

'U' means the design is unique to Bell.

'**' means I don't have it.

  • U Crown
  • U Electric Iron
  • U Petrol Pump
  • U Telephone * don't have card
  • U Lord Mayor's Coach
  • U Planet Plane (saucer)
  • U Space Plane
  • U Goose (round hat)
  • U Grand Piano
  • U Tower Bridge
  • U Maltese Cross
  • U Ball Burr/Magic Circle
  • Steamboat
  • Elephant
  • Wrestler
  • Skittle and Ball
  • Puzzle Car
  • Fire Engine
  • Helicopter
  • Space Ship
  • Covered "Waggon"
  • Tank
  • Lucky Cat
  • Space Gun
  • Atom Gun
  • Motorcyclist * don't have card
  • Ferryboat
  • Plane
  • ** Lucky Horseshoe


Puzzles from Pussy / Pussycat of Germany

  • Pussy Sticks - 2110
  • Elephant - 2200
  • Ladybug - 2201
  • ? - 2202
  • Owl - 2203
  • Fish - 2204
  • Heart - 2205
  • Sphere - 2206
  • Lantern - 2207
  • ? - 2208
  • ? - 2209
  • Cube (with embedded chain) - 2210
  • Cube (with loop) - 2210
  • Die (Dice) - 2211
  • Volkswagen - 2212
  • Bell - 2213
  • Car - 2214
  • ? - 2215
  • Movie Camera - 2216
  • Robot - 2217
  • ? - 2218
  • ? - 2219
  • Mushroom - 2220
  • Clover - 2221
  • Soccer Ball - 2240
  • Trick Star (Diagonal Star) - 2260
  • Astro Puzzle (6 D's) - 2261
  • Sixbricks (Diagonal Burr) - 2262
  • Hexon (6 Gears) - 2263
  • Tangle - 2264
  • Triple Knot (6 Piece Burr) - 2265
  • Cage Burr - 2266
  • Satellite - 2267
  • Polygon (18 Sticks) - 2268
  • Duck in Top Hat - 2900
  • Linde Fridge - (no number)


Puzzles from Kabaya Leaf of Japan
カバヤビッグリーグガムパズル (Kabaya Big League Gum Puzzle)

The Japanese company Kabaya, in partnership with the American company Leaf, produced Big League Chewing Gum and a large number of small plastic puzzles, many of them interlocking, to accompany the gum as "bonus" or "extra" premiums.

While boxes can occasionally be found, there were few solution sheets or cards available.

As far as I know, there is no official definitive list of all the puzzles issued, even at the Kabaya corporate website.

The list below has been compiled with the kind help of keychain puzzle expert William Waite. The page numbers (pnnn) and item numbers (#nnn) refer to listings in the Compendium 2nd Ed. '**' means I do not have an example.


  1. Sphere 13 (Steinhardt) p80 #478
  2. Sphere 12 (rings) p80 #477
  3. Sphere 11 (burr in sphere) p80 #476
  4. "Crossbow sphere"
    (colorful soft version of sphere 8) UNLISTED
  5. Steinhardt cube, soft plastic
  6. Steinhardt cube, hard plastic
  7. Cube 3 (diagonal) p81 #483
  8. Circle Burr 4 p84 #502
  9. Pentagonal Burr 8 (ring w/ 5 bars) p86 #511
  10. Burr 23 (6pc diag) p88 #526
  11. Burr 24 (edge 3 pagoda burr) p88 #527
  12. Burr 25 (diag star) p88 #528
  13. Burr 26 (6 plank, hard plastic) p89 #529
  14. Cylinder 4 (interlocking) p91 #541
  15. Capsule/Cylinder 6 p91 #543
  16. Octahedron (hard plastic) p92 #548
  17. Tower 4/Pylon (rounded chkrbd) p93 #557
  18. Tower 5 (elongated cross, rounded) p93 #558
  19. Traditional 6-piece burr UNLISTED

>>> ANIMALS <<<

  1. Alligator p1 #1
  2. Butterfly p1 #6
  3. Dinosaur 3 (Brontosaur) p2 #12
  4. Triceratops UNLISTED
  5. Stegosaur UNLISTED
    (version of small dragon/stegosaur without loop)
  6. Dachshund p5 #25
  7. Elephant 6 (Steinhardt) p7 #41
  8. Fish 2 (Steinhardt) p8 #46
  9. Giraffe 2 p8 #48
  10. Grasshopper p9 #51
  11. Hippo 2 (Steinhardt, like elephant) p9 #53
  12. Ladybug 2 p10 #56
  13. Owl 2 (short ears, lg eyes) p11 #64
  14. Owl with 2-part head UNLISTED
  15. Penguin p11 #65
  16. Rabbit (long ears) p12 #71
  17. Rhino p12 #72
  18. Clam Shell 1 (scallop - flanges at hinge) p28 #168
  19. Clam Shell 2 (clam) p29 #169
  20. Snake (Curling Stone) p40 #235
  21. Dragonfly (short body, no loop) UNLISTED
  22. Rhinocerous Beetle (similar to HK Put & Take design, but with no loop) UNLISTED


  1. Letter A p25 #146
  2. Letter B p25 #147
  3. Letter C p25 #148
  4. American Flag p30 #178
  5. British Flag p30 #179
  6. French Flag/Finnish Flag p30 #180, p31 #181
  7. Card Suit Club p39 #232
  8. Card Suit Diamond p40 #236
  9. Card Suit Spade p43 #253
  10. Card Suit Heart p48 #283
  11. Robot 9 p24 #144
  12. Barrel (soft plastic, 6 pc) p26 #151
  13. Bell 2 (like Pussy Bell) p26 #154
  14. Bolt and Nut p27 #157
  15. Clock (Grandfather) p29 #170
  16. Mail Box p48 #287
  17. Pitcher p34 #202
  18. Blender UNLISTED
  19. Telephone 3 p36 #211
  20. Die (soft plastic) UNLISTED
  21. Droplet 1 p41 #243
  22. Pistol 4 (tiny) p45 #269
  23. Basketball 2 (Tennis Ball?) p37 #219
  24. Football 3 p42 #250
  25. Volleyball? UNLISTED (soft version of KUN sphere 9, p79 #474)
  26. Soccer Ball UNLISTED
  27. Eiffel Tower 2 (Tokyo Tower?) p47 #278
  28. Kokugikan (a Sumo stadium) p48 #285
  29. "Squashed Half-Dome" (may be another stadium?) UNLISTED
  30. ** Gemstone (all "stadium" may be gemstones - see Waite) UNLISTED
  31. Thin Pagoda Tower p50 #300
  32. Locomotive 9 (old time, short stack) p65 #385
  33. Locomotive 10 (modern) p65 #386
  34. Locomotive 11 (old time, tall stack) p65 #387
  35. Locomotive 12 (old time, hump) p65 #388
  36. Sailboat (similar to HK Put & Take Sailboat design, but with no loop on top) UNLISTED
  37. Cruise Ship (no loop on top) UNLISTED


  1. 6-piece Cube assembly
  2. Tangram/dissected triangle
  3. Towers of Hanoi
  4. 3x3 beads (3D Tic Tac Toe?)
  5. Tic Tac Toe
  6. Magic Square
  7. Knights
  8. Peg Puzzle
  9. Caltrops 3 pc tetrahedron
  10. ** One Way
  11. ** Tanglement
  12. ** Dexterity 2 rings over Tokyo Tower
  13. ** Dexterity 2 rings over Seahorse
  14. ** Dexterity ball in 2 handles over tray


>>> Kun <<<

40 puzzles issued.
Each puzzle was issued as pieces attached to sprues, in a bag with "PUZZLE KUN" stickers and an instruction sheet folded and sealed so as to hide the solution.
To reveal the solution one has to cut open the folded sheet along its edges.
The Kun puzzles originally came in four different oblong boxes - I believe one puzzle to a box, though the four different boxes each depict a series of ten puzzles.
(I have a box and though it is large I also have several of the Kun puzzles still on sprues in their original bags, and there is no way ten could fit inside one box.)
Example boxes are shown below for reference - I have the red one. The checkered yellow example also appeared on a photo of the back of a Japanese comic magazine from 1981:

Also see the checkered box set in the Slocum Collection at the Lilly Library.

This image of the other three Kun boxes and their contents comes from the Dalgety Puzzle Museum:

The Yellow Patterned set also appears in the Slocum Collection at the Lilly Library, as does the Red Box set in two parts.

The "Kun" are larger than the "regular" Kabaya-Leaf puzzles.
Half were issued in black and white and of those several puzzles have "inverted" color twins.
The others were issued in color and several appeared in different colors including red, blue, yellow, green, white, and black.

Besides James Dalgety with his complete set of four boxes, fellow keychain puzzle collector Peter Hajek (PH) managed to collect the entire set of 40 Kun puzzles. He sent me the photo of them in his display, below. It is a grid of four rows (1-4) by six columns (1-6), with 1 or 2 puzzles in each cubbyhole (L,R). In my list here, I will cross-reference to Peter's photo by giving a puzzle's coordinates in the grid.

I have only those marked 'HAVE.'

Yellow Checked Box (B&W)

  1. HAVE: Drop 2 p41 #244 - PH has black loop at 2,1L
  2. HAVE: Burr 4 (slab) p85 #507 - PH has loop on black at 2,1R (INV)
  3. HAVE: Sphere 9 (b & w 'volleyball') p79 #474 - PH has (can't see loop) at 2,2L
  4. HAVE: Burr 17 (3x3 weave) p87 #520 - 2,2R
  5. HAVE: B&W Barrel UNLISTED - PH has black w/ white cross 2,3L (INV)
  6. HAVE: Burr 5 (6pc diag) p85 #508 - 2,3R
  7. HAVE: (INV) Hemisphere p91 #545 - PH has white w/ black cross at 2,4L
  8. HAVE: B&W 6pc burr UNLISTED - 2,4R
  9. HAVE: (INV) Sphere 7 (b&w burr in sphere) p79 #472 - PH has black cage white spots at 2,5
  10. HAVE: Capsule/Cylinder 5 (pill shape, chkrbd) p91 #542 - 2,6

Yellow Pattern Box (B&W)

  1. HAVE: (INV) Cylinder 2 (checkerboard) p90 #539 - 4,1L
  2. HAVE: (Black) Pyramid 1 p92 #550 - 4,1R
  3. HAVE: Burr Cage 2 (std ball in cage) p90 #535 - 4,2L
  4. HAVE: Sphere 8 (Kumiki) p79 #473 - PH has black w/ white rects at 4,2R (INV)
  5. HAVE: Die 5 p41 #242 - PH has black w/ white pips at 4,3L (INV)
  6. HAVE: Burr 14 (edge 4 pagoda burr) p87 #517 - 4,3R
  7. HAVE: Soccer Ball 4 p38 #226 - PH has white w/ black pents at 4,4L (INV)
  8. HAVE: Burr 6 (6pc crystal / diagonal star) p85 #509 - 4,4R
  9. HAVE: Tower 1 (checkerboard) p93 #554 - black corners & loop at 4,5
  10. HAVE: (INV) Tower 2 (elongated cross, not rounded) p93 #555 - PH has white w/ black cross 4,6

Red Box (colors)

  1. HAVE: Hot Pad (mesh) p32 #189 - PH has red at 3,1
  2. HAVE: 18 pc. Burr (may be Burr 16 p87 #519) UNLISTED - PH has blue 3,2L
  3. HAVE: Cylinder 3 (7 life savers) p90 #540 - PH has yellow 3,4R
  4. HAVE: Platform (2x3 chiclets) p92 #549 - PH has yellow at 3,3L
  5. HAVE: Burr 9 (3D cross) p86 #512 - PH has blue at 3,3R
  6. HAVE: Cube 13 (soma like) p83 #493 - PH has blue at 3,4L
  7. HAVE: Cylinder 1 (6 segment) p90 #538 - PH has blue - 3,2R
  8. HAVE: Cube 11 (Cube Rattle) p82 #491 - PH has red at 3,5L
  9. HAVE: Tangram set UNLISTED - PH has white tray w/ green pcs 3,5R
  10. HAVE: Burr Circle 3 p84 #501 - PH has white at 3,6

Blue Box (colors)

  1. HAVE: Burr 18 (3x3x3 "molecular" lattice) p87 #521 - PH has red at 1,1
  2. Burr 7 (6 D-shaped pcs) p85 #510 - PH has red at 1,2L
  3. Tower 3 (blocks) p93 #556 - PH has yellow w/ black blocks 1,2R
  4. Cube 12 (like a MacFarland, all black) p82 #492 - PH has black at 1,3L
  5. HAVE: Burr 19 (burr in sphere - "mine") p87 #522 - PH has blue at 1,4R
  6. Hexagon Prism p91 #546 - PH has blue at 1,4L
  7. Intersecting Circles p92 #547 - PH has red base, white circles at 1,3R
  8. Three Figures (square/circle/triangle) p93 #553 - red and white 1,5L
  9. Pyramid 2 (ball pyramid) p92 #551 - PH has blue at 1,6
  10. Caged rectangular prism UNLISTED - PH has green cage w/ blue blocks 1,5R



Color Kun:


Non-interlocking Keychain Puzzles

Keychain Square Me assembly puzzle
Make a square without the small green square piece,
then make another square with all pieces.

Keychain Sliding Li'l Abner puzzle

The classic 3x3x3 cube as a miniature keychain puzzle.

Mini Molecube keychain puzzle
A 3x3x3 with Sudoku goal

Keychain Gear Egg
Keychain Ultimate Skewb group
A nice group of keychain twisty puzzles issued by RecentToys
- including the Ultimate Skewb. Thanks, Jaap!

Zcube Twisty keychain puzzle set of 6
Zcube Twisty keychain puzzle set of 6

FIFA World Cup France '98 mini Skewb keychain puzzle FIFA World Cup France '98 mini Skewb keychain puzzle FIFA World Cup France '98 mini Skewb keychain puzzle
FIFA World Cup France '98 mini Skewb keychain puzzle

A Babylon Tower keychain puzzle.

A Varikon Barrel keychain puzzle.

Three keychain twisty puzzles from Mefferts.

mini Rubik's Snake

Missing Link keychain puzzle

Twisty Barrel keychain puzzle

Okki - a vintage keychain twisty puzzle

Six de Savoie - a French keychain packing puzzle
Fit the six wedges of a circle into the hexagonal container.

Here is a keychain version of the classic Star and Belt tangle puzzle.
a.k.a. the Amazing New Spur-Belt Puzzle

A group of dexterity keychain puzzles

Tower of Hanoi puzzle - Kabaya Leaf Japan
I found a pair - each with its instruction sheet and a box. I sold one.

3D Tic-Tac-Toe
A non-interlocking puzzle from Kabaya Leaf Japan
Complete in small box with instructions.
(In this case, the instructions are on the bottom of the board piece.)

Tic Tac Toe
A non-interlocking puzzle from Kabaya Leaf Japan
Complete in small box with instructions.

Magic Square 15 puzzle - Kabaya Leaf Japan

Cube Assembly
A non-interlocking puzzle from Kabaya Leaf Japan
Complete in small box with instructions.

A non-interlocking puzzle from Kabaya Leaf Japan
Complete in small box with instructions.

A non-interlocking puzzle from Kabaya Leaf Japan
Complete in small box with instructions.

Peg Puzzle
A non-interlocking puzzle from Kabaya Leaf Japan
Complete in small box with instructions.

Caltrops puzzle - Kabaya Leaf Japan

"Gray Area" and Non-Puzzle Keychains

Keychain Owls A group of simple Owl keychain "puzzles"
One "Nite Owl" in its package

Mini 2-Piece Owl Keychain Puzzles

Tiger - very simple, similar to the Owl
Two examples, one in original package

Three examples of a Two-Piece Fish - similar to the Owl and the Tiger.

The 2-piece fish was patented in 1958 by Olson - 2840878

Keychain two-piece Good Luck Clover in Horseshoe
Cites the Olson patent.

Keychain two-piece Bull Head
My brown example is very beat up, with one ear missing. The back of the brown piece says "5 5 75" so this might date from 1975.
The red example's white insert has several areas of raised text including "St Paul Minn USA" and "Remembrance." It cites the Olson Patent 2840878.

Yellow Pages keychain
Another very simple two-piece design.
Seems like it was intended to hide a quarter - but unfortunately it was made with an internal rib down the middle which prevents this.

A simple 2-piece advertising keychain.

A Rude Clown - not a puzzle.
Push in the button on the back of his head and he sticks out his tongue and nose.
Parts of a broken one shown sans spring.

Another version of the Rude Clown - a Rude Professor - Lindex
Wearing a mortar board hat embossed "Collegiate Cap & Gown Co."
Reminds me of the iconic photo of Einstein sticking out his tongue.

Jerry Mahoney - the dummy popularized by ventriloquist Paul Winchell in the 1950s.
This keychain toy allows you to move the eyes and the mouth using a protruding knob.

Clown Magic Coin Carrier - Lindex
This novelty keychain accepts small coins and can eject them via its mouth when you actuate a lever on the back.

Egg-Laying Duck
This keychain toy duck releases a small egg through a hole in its base when you push a spring-loaded button on its side.
This was listed in the Compendium 1st Ed. as "Duck 4" #30 on p5, but I agree with its removal since it is a novelty mechanism rather than an interlocking puzzle.

A vintage novelty keychain Football Helmet with a Football

Novelty Keychain Screwball

Novelty Keychain Toilet

Novelty Keychain Half Chamber Pot

Novelty Keychain Tic-Tac-Toe Game

Novelty Keychain GIMIX Opener and Pipe Tool

Novelty Keychain Coin Holder

Novelty Keychain Elephants

Novelty Keychain Bug-Eyed Skull
The jaw opens and the eyes bug out.

Novelty Keychain Voodoo Skull
A white marble inside makes the eyes appear.

A set of keychain gun models, made in China.
In most cases the chamber opens and trigger pulls.

Mini Soft Pellet Gun - 3 copies

Slot Machine - Mechanical Servants

Lucky Number

Games of Chance group

Lettered Kettle - France

Keychain Spools

Disney Knife

A posable puzzle doll - Kawada Japan 1985

A set of keychain barbells

"Don't Gamble" Die keychain puzzle
Only two pieces - almost a secret opening box.
Included in the 1st ed. of the Compendium as "Dice 4" #188 on p 32, but gone from the 2nd.

I found a second instance of the Don't Gamble die, in black. This one contained a surprise! Can you guess what it is - hint: it is in keeping with the theme "Don't gamble!"

Here is an example in pink:

Mini 3D Crystal Puzzles - Blue Heart, Pink Heart, Blue Slipper, Red Star, Blue Star
The Compendium 2nd Ed. excludes these since these are intended to lock permanently together and not allow disassembly / re-assembly.

Unimel keychain - France 1967
A simple puzzle at best but a clever little thingamabob!
The top (black) layer with windows can be turned in 90 degree increments to reveal different sets of letters printed on the underlying layer.
I was able to carefully remove the top layer so you can see the entire letter grid.
The four positions are marked 1 through 4 with a tiny arrow in the corners of the black layer - each number should be rotated to the top left in turn while holding the puzzle so the letters appear upright in the windows.
As you rotate from 1 to 4, you can read out "Dit en code cest encore mieux Unimel pain depices chavoureux" from left to right down the grid, with words separated by dots. This translates from French as "Said in code it's even better Unimel tasty gingerbread."
Unimel also issued a set of colorful cardboard cutout Asterix cartoon figures to advertise their products.

Japanese Steamroller puzzle
(Too big to be a keychain)

Japanese Batmobile puzzle
(Too big to be a keychain)

I found this store card - the car is a transparent version of the "Batmobile" shown above, but here it is called a "Can-Am" racing car.

An interlocking puzzle Camera Spy Gun from Japan.

A Bug-Eyed Alien from Japan.

A caped Superhero - Japan
Has an S on its belt but doesn't resemble Superman.
Too large for a keychain puzzle.

A metal Robot - Japan

A sort of Totem figure - known as "Patch Man" - Japan
Part of a series of several different designs, maybe issued in the 1980's.
Press-fit, not interlocking.

Another Patchwork Man (Patchy Man) from Japan
This is a "Haniwa" (埴輪).
Haniwa are terracotta clay figures that were buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (古墳時代) of the history of Japan.
See this photo from a blog post on

Ganesha Patch Man (ガネーシャ つぎはぎマン)

Dogu Patch Man
See original figurine at,
referenced in this article about clay figurines "Dogu" (土偶 or ドグー)

"Arc Hat" Patchman - Japan
Officially called "Timur" (チムール)

Sphinx Patchwork Man - Japan

Mayan Patchwork Man - Japan

Ryu Shisa Patchwork Man - Meiji Japan

Saboten Patchwork Man - Meiji Japan

Olme (Olmec head) Patchwork Man - Meiji Japan

Africo Patchwork Man - Meiji Japan

明治チョコスナック つぎはぎマン means "Meiji chocolate snack Patch Man" -
A series of small totemic figures - known as "Patch Man" (つぎはぎマン) - were issued in Japan in the early 1980's by the Meiji Company as bonus toys/puzzles accompanying confections.

They are press-fit, not interlocking, and consist of six pieces, issued on a sprue.
I have managed to acquire all but one (I do not own the box or sprue shown above). I've created the catalog here for reference, based on photos of my examples plus images I've snagged from the web. The little figures seem very collectible in Japan, with prices for a single figure reaching $200. AFAIK there are twelve different figures, but each can appear in several different colors, and some I have seen are multi-colored (though the box seems to suggest one would have to mix pieces from different puzzles to achieve this).
They seem to be based on iconic mythic figues or gods from various ancient civilizations.
I've given them silly names below just to name them something and I also give the official name (shown on the sides of the box).

Arc Hat
Officially called "Timur" (チムール)

Baguette Ears
Officially called "Africo" (アフリコ)

Easter Island Moai (モアイ)
Officially called "Moa" (モア)

Hindu Ganesha
Officially called "Nesha" (ネーシャ)

Officially called "Haniman" (ハニマン)

Officially called Dogu (ドグー)

Officially called "Saboten" ("Cactus")

Shisa (Lion Dog) (シーサー) - a Ryukyuan cultural artifact
Officially called "Ryu"
See photo of Okinawan Shisa.

Mayan (マヤーン)
Officially called "Majin"

Egyptian Mummy Tutankhamen
Officially called "Khamen"

Olmec head
Officially called "Olme" (オルメ)

Egyptian Sphinx
Officially called "Finks"


Cannon / Field Gun - Japan
キャノン means "cannon"
 砲  means "cannon" or "gun"
分解説明図 means "exploded view"

Missile Car - Japan
宇宙 ミサイル カー - means "Space Missile Car"
のはずしかた means roughly "How to disassemble"
Comes with keys for the internal windup motor, and a spring-loaded missile.
When the motor is wound, the missile can be locked on the launcher.
When the car runs and the motor's spring unwinds, it releases the launcher catch and fires the missile. Cool!

A pair of Tanks, in package - Japan

Revolver puzzle - Japan
Too big for a true keychain puzzle, but it does come apart.

新三共胃腸薬 means "Shin Sankyo Gastrointestinal Medicine"

A push-fit Locomotive - Sankyo Japan

A large Locomotive on card - Japan

An Articulated Fish - purportedly issued by Kabaya Leaf Japan

A push-fit Race Car from Glico Japan
Glico issued many small toys as prizes or "Bonus" items accompanying candy.

A car driven by simple cartoon figures - Japan

I found these two versions of a Helicopter (two examples of one type), made in Hong Kong.
Small enough to qualify as a keychain puzzle, but not really interlocking.

Viking, Atalanta, and Viscount Airplane puzzles
U.K. cereal-box prizes

Three Airplanes on sprues - Japan
Soft plastic.

A Rocket and Gantry - Japan

A press-fit Empire State Building.
Made in Hong Kong.

Puzzle Watch set - Japan

Video Corder - Japan
Too large but it does disassemble. Push the green button to cycle through various images of robots.

Reiss issued a series of small plastic vehicle construction toys or interlocking puzzles in the 1970's. They are a bit too large IMHO to count as true keychain puzzles, but some collections include them.

Classic Train Puzzle - Victoria - Reiss

Classic Car Puzzle - Chalmers-Detroit - Reiss

A Cartoon Hand puzzle issued by Pif Gadget of France circa 1970.
The pieces came to me on their original sprue but I wanted to assemble the puzzle so I cut them free.
A bit large for a true keychain puzzle, and has no hook, but it's definitely a miniature plastic interlocking puzzle.
In French, Pif means "big nose" and "au pif" means "at random."
Pif Gadget was a French comic magazine for kids that ran from 1969 to 1993 and 2004 to 2009. A "gadget" or toy accompanied each issue.
The hand puzzle was included with No. 560 December 1979 (according to multiple French eBay sellers).
You can barely make out the "Pif" logo on the white base of the wrist.

I found a second example in all yellow but I sold it:


Here is a section containing small images of just the fronts of the more colorful cards. Aren't they attractive?